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240 discharged German manufactured bullet casings found near a mass execution site 2010.443.18 box 1 front

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

240 discharged bullet casings, with the contemporary archeological bag they were transported in, recovered in 2005 by Yahad-In Unum at a mass execution site in Khvativ, a small village in the Lvivska province of Ukraine. A casing contains propellant and primer, and holds the bullet in place. Several of the casings have a headstamp marking the German manufacturer, location, year, batch, and material. In September 1939, following Germany's invasion of Poland, the Lvivska province was occupied by the Soviet Union pursuant to the terms of the German-Soviet Pact. In late June 1941, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa, a surprise attack on Russia. The military assault was coordinated with killing squads whose goal was the Final Solution, the elimination of all Jews from the conquered territories. With the assistance of trained collaborators and the local populace, the goal was achieved through deportations to killing centers and mass executions throughout the region. The lack of adequate rail transport meant that many villages had killing fields where the Jews were shot and buried in huge ditches, along with the bullets and other evidence. Through interviews with the remaining eyewitnesses, Yahad-In Unum locates and documents these remains of a Holocaust by bullets and offers respectful remembrance for the fallen.

240 discharged bullet casings, with the contemporary archeological bag they were transported in, recovered in 2005 by Yahad-In Unum at a mass execution site in Khvativ, a small village in the Lvivska province of Ukraine. A casing contains propellant and primer, and holds the bullet in place. Several of the casings have a headstamp marking the German manufacturer, location, year, batch, and material. In September 1939, following Germany's invasion of Poland, the Lvivska province was occupied by the Soviet Union pursuant to the terms of the German-Soviet Pact. In late June 1941, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa, a surprise attack on Russia. The military assault was coordinated with killing squads whose goal was the Final Solution, the elimination of all Jews from the conquered territories. With the assistance of trained collaborators and the local populace, the goal was achieved through deportations to killing centers and mass executions throughout the region. The lack of adequate rail transport meant that many villages had killing fields where the Jews were shot and buried in huge ditches, along with the bullets and other evidence. Through interviews with the remaining eyewitnesses, Yahad-In Unum locates and documents these remains of a Holocaust by bullets and offers respectful remembrance for the fallen.

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Details

  • Title: 240 discharged German manufactured bullet casings found near a mass execution site 2010.443.18 box 1 front
  • Location: Ukraine--History--German occupation, 1941-1944., Ukraine--History--German occupation, 1941-1944.
  • Provenance: The bullet casings were donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2010 by Father Patrick Desbois on behalf of Yahad-in Unum., The bullet casings were donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2010 by Father Patrick Desbois on behalf of Yahad-in Unum.
  • Subject Keywords: Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Ukraine. Genocide--Ukraine. Jews--Persecutions--Ukraine. Mass murder--Ukraine. World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities--Ukraine--Lvivska oblast., Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Ukraine. Genocide--Ukraine. Jews--Persecutions--Ukraine. Mass murder--Ukraine. World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities--Ukraine--Lvivska oblast.
  • Type: Weapons, Weapons
  • Rights: Permanent Collection, Permanent Collection
  • External Link: See the full record at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, See the full record at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  • Medium: The letter components in this record are assigned for cataloging purposes only. a. 240 discharged cylindrical brass bullet casings with significant orange rust and corrosion and a ridge near the bottom rim; varying in size from fragments, to partially intact, to 13 casings intact, averaging 2.250 inches in length and 0.500 inches in diameter. Most are exploded and have metal remnants in the center. 1 casing holds a cylindrical bullet. Box 1 has 86 casings, box 2 has 154 casings. 19 casings have a headstamp engraved clockwise on the bottom. For the German manufactured casings at 12 o’clock is the manufacturer’s code with the letter P and numbers, and SB or X, at 3 o’clock is S* for a brass base, at 6 o’clock is the batch number, and at 9 o’clock is the year. For the Polish manufactured casings, at 12 o’clock are letters for the manufacturer code, at 3 o’clock is the year, at 6 o’clock are letters for the brass supplier code, and at 9 o’clock is the percentage of copper in the brass alloy. aux S* 39 40 [Polte Armaturen-und Maschinenfabrik A.G., in Magdeburg, Germany] N / 67 / [Reichsadler] / 31 [Westfalische Kupfer-und. Messingwerke A.G., in Ludenscheid, Germany] P S* 1 37 [German manufacturer] P S* 8 37 [German manufacturer] P S* 27 37 [German manufacturer] P S* [?] 39 [German manufacturer] P132 S* 6 35 [Draht-und Metallwarenfabriken GmbH in Salzwedel, Germany] P163 S* 10 37 [Metallwarenfabrik Treuenbrietzen GmbH in Selterhof, Germany] P181 S* 27 38 [Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft in Leipzig, Germany] P181 S* 13 3[?] [Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft in Leipzig, Germany] P1[?]0 S* 29 37 [German manufacturer] P207 S* 1 37 [Metallwerk Odertal GmbH in Bad Lauterberg, Germany] P20[?] S* 37 38 [German manufacturer] P249 S* 3 36 [Finower Industrie GmbH in Finow, Germany] P249 S* [?] 36 [Finower Industrie GmbH in Finow, Germany] P316 S* 8 38 [Westfalische Metall-Industrie A.-G. in Lippstadt, Germany] PK / 32 / DZ / [?]7 [Pocisk Spolka Akcyjna in Warsaw, Poland / Dziedzice] SB / [?] / [?] / 19 / [Sellier and Bellot in Elbe, Germany] X S* 31 40 [Busch-und Jaeger, Ludenscheider Metallwerke A.G. in Ludenscheid, Germany] b. Rectangular, white polypropylene sack with a hemmed top opening and a reinforced, double stitched closed bottom. One side has handwritten text in black marker and a preprinted black recycling label. The reverse has a red preprinted manufacturer’s logo. It measures 20.500 in height and 13.750 in width., The letter components in this record are assigned for cataloging purposes only. a. 240 discharged cylindrical brass bullet casings with significant orange rust and corrosion and a ridge near the bottom rim; varying in size from fragments, to partially intact, to 13 casings intact, averaging 2.250 inches in length and 0.500 inches in diameter. Most are exploded and have metal remnants in the center. 1 casing holds a cylindrical bullet. Box 1 has 86 casings, box 2 has 154 casings. 19 casings have a headstamp engraved clockwise on the bottom. For the German manufactured casings at 12 o’clock is the manufacturer’s code with the letter P and numbers, and SB or X, at 3 o’clock is S* for a brass base, at 6 o’clock is the batch number, and at 9 o’clock is the year. For the Polish manufactured casings, at 12 o’clock are letters for the manufacturer code, at 3 o’clock is the year, at 6 o’clock are letters for the brass supplier code, and at 9 o’clock is the percentage of copper in the brass alloy. aux S* 39 40 [Polte Armaturen-und Maschinenfabrik A.G., in Magdeburg, Germany] N / 67 / [Reichsadler] / 31 [Westfalische Kupfer-und. Messingwerke A.G., in Ludenscheid, Germany] P S* 1 37 [German manufacturer] P S* 8 37 [German manufacturer] P S* 27 37 [German manufacturer] P S* [?] 39 [German manufacturer] P132 S* 6 35 [Draht-und Metallwarenfabriken GmbH in Salzwedel, Germany] P163 S* 10 37 [Metallwarenfabrik Treuenbrietzen GmbH in Selterhof, Germany] P181 S* 27 38 [Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft in Leipzig, Germany] P181 S* 13 3[?] [Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft in Leipzig, Germany] P1[?]0 S* 29 37 [German manufacturer] P207 S* 1 37 [Metallwerk Odertal GmbH in Bad Lauterberg, Germany] P20[?] S* 37 38 [German manufacturer] P249 S* 3 36 [Finower Industrie GmbH in Finow, Germany] P249 S* [?] 36 [Finower Industrie GmbH in Finow, Germany] P316 S* 8 38 [Westfalische Metall-Industrie A.-G. in Lippstadt, Germany] PK / 32 / DZ / [?]7 [Pocisk Spolka Akcyjna in Warsaw, Poland / Dziedzice] SB / [?] / [?] / 19 / [Sellier and Bellot in Elbe, Germany] X S* 31 40 [Busch-und Jaeger, Ludenscheider Metallwerke A.G. in Ludenscheid, Germany] b. Rectangular, white polypropylene sack with a hemmed top opening and a reinforced, double stitched closed bottom. One side has handwritten text in black marker and a preprinted black recycling label. The reverse has a red preprinted manufacturer’s logo. It measures 20.500 in height and 13.750 in width.

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