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337 discharged German and Polish manufactured bullet casings found at a mass execution site 2010.443.11 closed

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

337 discharged bullet casings, and a contemporary archeological bag used to transport them, recovered in 2005 by Yahad-In Unum at a mass execution site in Khvativ, a small village in the Lvivska province of Ukraine. A casing contains propellant and primer, and holds the bullet in place. Several of the casings have a headstamp marking the German and Polish manufacturer, location, year, batch, and material. In September 1939, following Germany's invasion of Poland, the Lvivska province was occupied by the Soviet Union pursuant to the terms of the German-Soviet Pact. In late June 1941, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa, a surprise attack on Russia. The military assault was coordinated with killing squads whose goal was the Final Solution, the elimination of all Jews from the conquered territories. With the assistance of trained collaborators and the local populace, the goal was achieved through deportations to killing centers and mass executions throughout the region. The lack of adequate rail transport meant that many villages had killing fields where the Jews were shot and buried in huge ditches, along with the bullets and other evidence. Through interviews with the remaining eyewitnesses, Yahad-In Unum locates and documents these remains of a Holocaust by bullets and offers respectful remembrance for the fallen.

337 discharged bullet casings, and a contemporary archeological bag used to transport them, recovered in 2005 by Yahad-In Unum at a mass execution site in Khvativ, a small village in the Lvivska province of Ukraine. A casing contains propellant and primer, and holds the bullet in place. Several of the casings have a headstamp marking the German and Polish manufacturer, location, year, batch, and material. In September 1939, following Germany's invasion of Poland, the Lvivska province was occupied by the Soviet Union pursuant to the terms of the German-Soviet Pact. In late June 1941, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa, a surprise attack on Russia. The military assault was coordinated with killing squads whose goal was the Final Solution, the elimination of all Jews from the conquered territories. With the assistance of trained collaborators and the local populace, the goal was achieved through deportations to killing centers and mass executions throughout the region. The lack of adequate rail transport meant that many villages had killing fields where the Jews were shot and buried in huge ditches, along with the bullets and other evidence. Through interviews with the remaining eyewitnesses, Yahad-In Unum locates and documents these remains of a Holocaust by bullets and offers respectful remembrance for the fallen.

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Details

  • Title: 337 discharged German and Polish manufactured bullet casings found at a mass execution site 2010.443.11 closed
  • Location: Ukraine--History--German occupation, 1941-1944., Ukraine--History--German occupation, 1941-1944.
  • Provenance: The bullet casing was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2010 by Father Patrick Desbois on behalf of Yahad-in Unum., The bullet casing was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2010 by Father Patrick Desbois on behalf of Yahad-in Unum.
  • Subject Keywords: Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Ukraine. Genocide--Ukraine. Jews--Persecutions--Ukraine. Mass murder--Ukraine. World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities--Ukraine--Lvivska oblast., Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Ukraine. Genocide--Ukraine. Jews--Persecutions--Ukraine. Mass murder--Ukraine. World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities--Ukraine--Lvivska oblast.
  • Type: Weapons, Weapons
  • Rights: Permanent Collection, Permanent Collection
  • External Link: See the full record at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, See the full record at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  • Medium: The letter components in this record are assigned for cataloging purposes only. a. 337 used cylindrical brass bullet casings with a ridge near the bottom and significant orange rust and corrosion. They vary in size from fragments, to partially intact, to 13 casings intact, averaging 2.250 inches in length and 0.500 inches in diameter. Most are exploded and have metal remnants in the center. 14 casings have a headstamp engraved on the bottom. For the German manufactured casings at 12 o’clock is the manufacturer’s code with the letter P and numbers or a series of letters, at 3 o’clock is S* for a brass base, at 6 o’clock is the batch number, and at 9 o’clock is the year. For the Polish manufactured casings, at 12 o’clock are letters for the manufacturer code, at 3 o’clock is the year, at 6 o’clock are letters for the brass supplier code, and at 9 o’clock is the percentage of copper in the brass alloy. The codes below were each found on a single bullet in this group: aux S* 39 40 [Polte Armaturen-und Maschinenfabrik A.G., Magdeburg, Germany] Fer S* 5 42 [German manufacturer] P135 S* 9 37 [German manufacturer] P151 S* 14 37 [Rheinisch-Westfälische Sprengstoff A.G., Nuremberg, Germany] P163 S* 19 37 [Metallwarenfabrik Treuenbrietzen GmbH, Selterhof, Germany] P163 S* 10 37 [Metallwarenfabrik Treuenbrietzen GmbH, Selterhof, Germany] P181 S* 5 37 [Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft, Leipzig, Germany] P184 S* 21 38 [German manufacturer] P24[?]S* 20 36 [German manufacturer] P318 S* 5 39 [German manufacturer] P798 S* 9 35 [German manufacturer] PK / 34 / DZ / [?]7 [Pocisk Spolka Akcyjna, Warsaw, Poland / Dziedzice] PK / 32 / N / 67 [Pocisk, Spolka Akcyjna, Warsaw, Poland / Norblin] SB / 37 / IX / 19 / [Sellier and Bellot, Elbe, Germany] b. Rectangular, white polypropylene sack with a hemmed top opening and a reinforced, double stitched closed bottom. One side has handwritten text in black marker and a preprinted black recycling label. The reverse has a red preprinted manufacturer’s logo. Dimensions: 20.250 inches height; 13.750 inches width., The letter components in this record are assigned for cataloging purposes only. a. 337 used cylindrical brass bullet casings with a ridge near the bottom and significant orange rust and corrosion. They vary in size from fragments, to partially intact, to 13 casings intact, averaging 2.250 inches in length and 0.500 inches in diameter. Most are exploded and have metal remnants in the center. 14 casings have a headstamp engraved on the bottom. For the German manufactured casings at 12 o’clock is the manufacturer’s code with the letter P and numbers or a series of letters, at 3 o’clock is S* for a brass base, at 6 o’clock is the batch number, and at 9 o’clock is the year. For the Polish manufactured casings, at 12 o’clock are letters for the manufacturer code, at 3 o’clock is the year, at 6 o’clock are letters for the brass supplier code, and at 9 o’clock is the percentage of copper in the brass alloy. The codes below were each found on a single bullet in this group: aux S* 39 40 [Polte Armaturen-und Maschinenfabrik A.G., Magdeburg, Germany] Fer S* 5 42 [German manufacturer] P135 S* 9 37 [German manufacturer] P151 S* 14 37 [Rheinisch-Westfälische Sprengstoff A.G., Nuremberg, Germany] P163 S* 19 37 [Metallwarenfabrik Treuenbrietzen GmbH, Selterhof, Germany] P163 S* 10 37 [Metallwarenfabrik Treuenbrietzen GmbH, Selterhof, Germany] P181 S* 5 37 [Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft, Leipzig, Germany] P184 S* 21 38 [German manufacturer] P24[?]S* 20 36 [German manufacturer] P318 S* 5 39 [German manufacturer] P798 S* 9 35 [German manufacturer] PK / 34 / DZ / [?]7 [Pocisk Spolka Akcyjna, Warsaw, Poland / Dziedzice] PK / 32 / N / 67 [Pocisk, Spolka Akcyjna, Warsaw, Poland / Norblin] SB / 37 / IX / 19 / [Sellier and Bellot, Elbe, Germany] b. Rectangular, white polypropylene sack with a hemmed top opening and a reinforced, double stitched closed bottom. One side has handwritten text in black marker and a preprinted black recycling label. The reverse has a red preprinted manufacturer’s logo. Dimensions: 20.250 inches height; 13.750 inches width.

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