Ancestor figure, male

Unknown artist, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia1912 - 1913

Museums Victoria

Museums Victoria

Museum Victoria holds significant collections of artworks by Australian Aboriginal artists dating from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Museums are often criticized as categorising such works as ethnographic, however Museum Victoria is unique in that it has a history of collecting and exhibiting works by Aboriginal artists as art for a century. This bark painting is amongst the earliest works collected by the director of the National Museum of Victoria, Walter Baldwin Spencer. He first went to Oenpelli, the pastoral station established in western Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory by the famous buffalo shooter, Paddy Cahill. After Spencer’s first visit there in 1912, he returned to Melbourne with 38 works on bark collected from the region of the East and South Alligator Rivers. These, he removed from the bark that was laid over frameworks that provided shelter during wet season rains.
The male figure here lives amongst the caves and is associated with the Gaagudju people. Spencer identifies him as ‘Numereji’ and further notes ‘medicine men see him, talk to him’. The depiction is the front view of the ancestor in the typical style of portrayal in the art tradition of this region. The head is usually a very prominent feature and the hair and face here are very distinctive. These specific features in a painting allow bining, the people of western Arnhem Land, to identify the figure. He holds a club painted with designs characteristically painted on these men’s objects, and he holds feathers in the opposite hand. Unlike most of the figures in paintings collected by Spencer, it does not reveal any internal organs or skeletal elements in the classic ‘x-ray’ tradition. Artists in western Arnhem Land typically paint these figures with additional and exaggerated digits on the hands and feet, and this figure has extra toes on both feet and extra fingers.
The work originates from the first decades of the 20th century and is part of the earliest known bark paintings from western Arnhem Land. While the works associated with WB Spencer, and those commissioned by Cahill subsequent to Spencer’s visits, are not the earliest bark paintings in existence, they are the earliest works produced as a collection with over 170 paintings being produced between 1912 and 1922 for the museum in Melbourne. Mostly imagery is derived from animals depicted in the rich galleries of rock art found in this region; however so-called ‘spirit figures’ are the most intriguing and beguiling artworks. Bark paintings in the WB Spencer and Paddy Cahill Collections are considered the most significant historical art works from western Arnhem Land in existence. As such they have featured and continue to feature nationally and internationally in exhibitions and publications. These paintings take pride of place amongst the extensive and significant holdings of Aboriginal art in the collections of Indigenous art at Museum Victoria.

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  • Title: Ancestor figure, male
  • Date Created: 1912 - 1913
  • Physical Dimensions: w610 x h1500 x d70 mm
  • Type: Object
  • Rights: Copyright expired; Source: Museum Victoria; Indigenous or Cultural Rights apply, Copyright expired: Source: Museum Victoria / Artist: unknown. Indigenous or Cultural Rights apply
  • Medium: Natural pigments on Eucalyptus bark
  • Artist: Unknown artist, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia


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