A battle rages on the top of the rim of this Athenian dinos. Groups of hoplites, or foot soldiers, and a single cavalryman clash amidst waiting chariot teams. Four ships under full sail cover the rim's interior. The rim is the only part of this vessel decorated in the black-figure technique; shiny black glaze covers the rest of the body. The dinos was a vessel used at a symposium or drinking party to mix wine and water. The Greeks made a very strong wine that they always drank diluted. When the vessel was full of mixed wine and water, the ships on the inside rim would appear to sail on Homer's "wine-dark sea." The vase-painter Exekias introduced this visual ploy, but it later became a popular scheme of dinos decoration among other vase-painters. Dinoi have rounded bottoms and cannot remain steady on their own. Originally, this vase would have had a stand to support it. The stand here is a modern restoration.