"Mad" is an American humor magazine founded in 1952. Launched as a comic book before it became a magazine, it was widely imitated and influential, according to both critics and scholars, and it impacted both satirical media and the cultureal landscape of the 20th century. Although it had antecedents, Mad broke ground in many ways. It was the first humor magazine to parody not only itself, but American popular culture in general. Proudly devoid of any advertising until 2001, "Mad's" long time editor William Gaines feared "exploiting our fan base" but subsequent leaders allowed spin-off merchandise in other media. One example, from the late 1970s, is a board game produced independently at first but eventually by Parker Brothers.