The Lennox or Darnley locket is one of the most important early jewels in the Royal Collection. It is said to have been commissioned by Lady Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (1515-78), for her husband Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox and Regent of Scotland, who fell in battle in 1571. Theories vary for which occasion the jewel was made. Generally it is believed to have been a memorial piece following the Earl's death and certainly before Margaret's own death although the jewel makes no allusion to the Earl's death. It has also been suggested that it was made to commemorate the return of the exiled Earl to Scotland in 1564 or the restoration of his lands and honours in 1565. The heart-shaped locket, or 'tablet' in the language of the 16th century, was intended to be worn around the neck or on the breast. The complex iconography of memento mori motifs and symbols of profane and sacred love relate to the Earl and Countess's life together - the salamander is the crest of the house of Douglas and the heart its device and three fleurs-de-lis on an azure field form the first quarter of the Lennox arms. The jewel also reveals their ambitions for their grandson, the future James VI and I and provides him with the series of admonitions. Although it is not known where the jewel was made, such high-quality workmanship was available in Edinburgh at that time. Three Edinburgh goldsmiths are suggested as possible candidates - George Heriot, Michael Gilbert II and James Gray. The jewel was formerly in the collection of Horace Walpole (1717-97). It was purchased by Queen Victoria at the sale of Strawberry Hill in 1842 and was listed among her private jewellery taken 'to the Castle' following her death in 1901.