Historical sources report several devastating Slavic attacks on Hammaburg in the late 10th and especially in the 11th century. Large fire layers in the soil below Hammaburg near the former harbour shore can clearly be proved archaeologically. The massive expansion of Hammaburg III at the end of the 10th century can be seen as a reaction to the growing threat. The Slavs rebelled against the Christian missionary expeditions, which were always followed by significant monetary demands (tribute) by secular and religious leaders. Also, inner-Slavic fights between the converted and pagan groups often spread out to the neighbouring Western areas. Hammaburg, as a mission base and archdiocese, was particularly vulnerable.