John Marshall’s Bladder Stones and Surgical Instrument

early 1800s

National Constitution Center

National Constitution Center
Philadelphia, PA, United States

As evidenced by these bladder stones, John Marshall was quite human. Such tangible reminders—including the instrument that removed the stones nearly two centuries ago—emphasize Marshall’s mortality. In 1831, at the age of 76, he traveled to Philadelphia for surgery to remove the stones. He returned four years later with a liver ailment but died while awaiting treatment.


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