Armband issued in Harderwijk, Netherlands, and worn by Paul Paulus after liberation in April 1945. It identified Paul as an official civilian authority. During the German occupation of the Netherlands, May 1940-April 1945, Paul and his wife, Aaltje, who lived in Ermelo, aided resistance efforts by hiding Jews in their home. In October 1942, they gave refuge to a Jewish couple, Michel and Saartje Nathans, from Amsterdam, whose young daughter, Anita, was hidden in a different home. Paul built a hidden chamber in the attic bedroom where Michel and Saartje stayed. He built three other hiding places: a dugout under their kitchen floor and two deep holes outside in the nearby woods. Paul played a leadership role for the resistance in his area and the hideouts were used frequently. On April 18, 1945, Ermelo was liberated by British, Irish, and Canadian forces. Michel and Saartje reunited with Anita and returned to Amsterdam.