During his time as an Illinois lawyer and state senator, Orville Hickman Browning developed a close relationship with Abraham Lincoln. In 1861 Browning came to Washington, D.C., to fill Stephen Douglas' seat in the U.S. Senate and for a couple of years partnered with former Interior Secretary Thomas Ewing in a private law and lobbying firm. As President Johnson's secretary of the Interior, Browning favored a peaceful approach toward Indian affairs, believing that focusing funding and efforts on diplomacy could alleviate the need for troops in the West. The Office of Education was also added to the Department's portfolio during Browning's tenure. Browning remained loyal to President Johnson during the impeachment trial but returned to Illinois in 1869 to practice law.