Paper dolls first appeared in France and England in the 18th century. Some early paper dolls attempted to depict moral virtue and a pious demeanor; some illustrated actors and actresses for use on accompanying paper stages. Others encouraged children to dress them in printed outfits or to fashion outfits of their own designs from bits of fabric, lace, magazine pages, and tissue paper. In the 19th century, newspapers and magazines hoped to increase circulation by including pages of paper dolls to cut out and dress. In the 20th century, American magazines offered monthly installments in story series like Dolly Dingle, Peggy Pryde, Bonnie and Betty Bobbs, The Kewpies, and Polly and Peter Perkins. Betsy McCall appeared in "McCall's" magazine into the 1990s.