German artist-cabinetmakers settled in Paris: as well as J. F. Oeben, J. H. Riesener, G. Benemann, J. G. Schlichting, J. F. Schwerdfeger, A. Weisweiler, and French “ebenistes” J. F. Leuleu, R. Dubois, E. Levasseur, P. Roussel, Ch. C. Saunier, Ch. Topino, the Jacob brothers, J. L. F. Legry, and D. Toupillier were all leading masters of the age. Their furniture was more ponderous than furniture in the rococo. The ground plan of commodes and cabinets was rectangular; horizontal and vertical articulation was stronger than hitherto and in every case determined the decoration of the surface. The subjects of the coloured inlays are battle trophies, musical instruments, musical notes, and figural depictions. The inlay of the large surfaces is almost invariably geometrical in type. Perhaps the most important type of furniture during this age was the secretaire. This piece by Denis Toupillier has two doors in its lower part; behind its pull-down writing surface there are drawers and compartments. In its upper part, under the marble top, can be found a drawer. It is marked on its back with the stampedin letters D TOUPILLIER JME D TOUPILLIER. Likewise marked gilded and carved consoles by Toupillier can be found in a private collection in Paris.