Since the middle of the 19th century, Americans purchased pianos in increasing numbers. Families and friends gathered around the piano for evenings of musical fun. Piano players needed sheet music to learn the latest songs and publishers quickly printed everyone's favorite pieces, first in black and white and later with detailed chromolithographed color covers. The advent of radio and even television simply increased public awareness of hit songs, and the production of sheet music still grew. Eventually, use of sheet music lessened along with the popularity of home pianos in the middle and later 20th century. Radio, phonographs, and personal listening devices began to replace the piano in the parlor. The instrumental song "The 3rd Man Theme" was performed in the 1949 film of the same name, and was composed by Viennese musician Anton Karas. The film's score was performed by Karas on the zither, an instrument that had not been widely used in America or England. The theme became extremely popular and spent 11 weeks as the #1 song on the Billboard's chart.