According to Egyptian belief, the existence of the universe depended on a divine order established at the time of creation. This order was personified as the goddess Ma‘at, whose name meant justice, truth, and harmony and encompassed the entire scope of the concept "right." As the essence of creation and existence, Ma‘at embodied both cosmic and social order and was the foundation of all moral values. Maintaining Ma‘at was the primary role of the Pharaoh.
Credit: Gift of Abraham Guterman, New York, to American Friends of the Israel Museum