“[…] Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven;and let us make us a name […]. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower […]. And he said: […] let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one nother’s speech. […] and they left off to build the city.” (Gen. 11:4–8.)
King Nimrod, who appears as builder
along with his entourage at the bottom left of the painting, is not mentioned in the biblical text. Only the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, who collaborated with the Romans, combined records from different sources to create the legend that became accepted (Antiquitates Judaica I,4; 93–94 AD).
In the book illumination of the Early and High Middle Ages, local buildings that were less than monumental were used as models for the architecture of the Tower of Babel. Starring in the 16th century, artists orientated themselves on the
Mesopotamian type of step-shaped ziggurat (temple tower), which, however, was rectangular rather than round. Bruegel’s monumental composition had several forerunners in Netherlandish painting, but his work became the most famous classic among the Tower of Babel depictions and was frequently copied in many different variations. The sense of scale is provided by the flemish-style port city, which is impressively tiny in comparison to the tower. With meticulous precision and encyclopaedic interest Bruegel depicts an abundance of technical and mechanical details, from the supply of the building materials in the busy harbour to the various cranes and the scaffolding on the unfinished brick foundation. He sets the workers’ dwellings into the stone outer structure, which blends elements of classical with Romanesque architecture, and they appear to be more than merely temporary. By anchoring the building on the rocky slope, Bruegel creates the impression of static equilibrium. Reaching up to the clouds, the building, however, is
optically distorted and appears to have slightly sunk into the ground on the left side. This is an artistic gesture, on the one hand enhancing the impression of the
building’s monumentality, and on the other hand alluding to human hubris and the impossibility of completing the tower because “the Lord confused the language of all the earth”. (Gen. 11:9.)
© Cäcilia Bischoff, Masterpieces of the Picture Gallery. A Brief Guide to the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna 2010


  • Title: The Tower of Babel
  • Creator: Pieter Bruegel the Elder
  • Creator Lifespan: ca. 1526/30 - 1569
  • Creator Nationality: flemish
  • Creator Gender: male
  • Creator Death Place: Brussels
  • Creator Birth Place: Breda ?
  • Date Created: 1563
  • Style: flemish Mannerism
  • Provenance: Collection of Emperor Rudolf II.
  • Physical Dimensions: w155 x h114 cm
  • Inventory Number: GG 1026
  • Type: painting
  • Medium: Oil on Wood

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