Household appliances. Since the beginning of the 20th century, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, coffee grinders and toasters have entered our homes en masse. Some of these objects have become design icons, but they are also examples of the progress in mechanics and manufacturing processes. Their mass-production was possible only with the miniaturisation of components, their regularity and reliability, as well as the massive expansion of electricity networks after the Second World War. Standardisation of mechanical components and the domestic use of electricity were the keys to the development of household appliances, highlighted at the annual shows at the Grand Palais then at La Défense from 1923 to 1983.