Illustration by Mauricio Antón for the permanent exhibition of the Altamira National Museum and Research Center. This illustration is a recreation of the likely environment and ecosystems during the Upper Paleolithic period on the Iberian Peninsula. During this period, the cool, humid climate became milder, following the Last Glacial Maximum 18,000 years ago, until it reached current temperature levels. The main animal species at that time included bison, deer and mountain goats. The vegetation was characterized by a predominance of open spaces and meadows, while pine, birch, oak and hazel forests were scarce. This landscape of the Iberian Peninsula was mainly inhabited by Homo sapiens.