World Scout badge worn by Ludwig Salzer when he was in the 13th (United) Boy Scouts Rover troop in Shanghai, China, during World War II. Ludwig was a Jewish refugee from Vienna, Austria. In 1938, after Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany, anti-Jewish laws were enacted to persecute Jews. Ludwig's father, Hugo, was arrested during the November 1938 Kristallnacht pogrom and sent to Dachau concentration camp. He was released in 1939 and he and his wife, Theresa, decided to send 18 year old Ludwig to Shanghai. His 13 year old sister, Ilse, was placed on a kindertransport to England. They were not able to get visas to leave themselves and in 1941 were deported to the Opole ghetto in Poland where they died that same year.