The archaeological discoveries of the 19th century led to a greater understanding of ancient jewellery. For the first time, experts could collect, study and publish works on these intricate gold pieces. Intellectuals particularly admired archaeological-style jewellery, often closely copied from surviving finds, from around 1860 until at least the 1880s. Carlo Giuliano, who made this necklace around 1865, worked for the great Castellani firm in Italy before moving to London. His early work in London closely resembles the Castellani pieces in the classical style. The granulated surface of this necklace imitates the work of Etruscan goldsmiths.