Changsha is the capital and the largest city of Hunan Province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China, located in the lower reaches of Xiang River in northeastern Hunan. Changsha is also called Xingcheng and was once named Tanzhou in ancient times. It is also known as Shanshuizhoucheng, for the city, with the Xiang River flowing through it, contains Mount Yuelu and Orange Isle geographically. Changsha, with a total population up to 10 million as of 2020, is the core city of Chang-Zhu-Tan City Cluster and a supercity in China, one of the core cities in Central China, a National Comprehensive Transportation Hub, and one of the first National Famous Historical and Cultural Cities in China. Changshanese, a kind of Xiang Chinese, is spoken in the downtown, while Ningxiangnese and Liuyangnese are also spoken in the counties and cities under its jurisdiction.
Changsha has a history of more than 2,400 years of urban construction, and the name "Changsha" first appeared in the Yi Zhou Shu written in the pre-Qin era. In the Qin Dynasty, the Changsha Commandery was set up, and in the Western Han Dynasty, the Changsha Kingdom was established.