The Paris Commune was a revolutionary socialist government that controlled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
During the events of the Franco-Prussian War, Paris had been defended by the National Guard, where working class radicalism grew among soldiers. In March 1871, during the establishment of the Third Republic under French chief executive Adolphe Thiers, soldiers of the National Guard seized control of the city and then refused to accept the authority of the French government, instead attempting to establish an independent government.
The Commune governed Paris for two months, establishing policies that tended toward a progressive, secular system of social democracy, including the separation of church and state, self-policing, the remission of rent during the siege, the abolition of child labor, and the right of employees to take over an enterprise deserted by its owner. Feminist, socialist, and anarchist currents played important roles in the Commune.
The Commune was eventually suppressed by the national French Army during La semaine sanglante beginning on 21 May 1871.