Battle of Călugăreni

The Battle of Călugăreni was a battle in the history of early modern Romania. It took place on 23 August [O.S. 13 August] 1595 between the Wallachian army led by Michael the Brave and the Ottoman army led by Koca Sinan Pasha. It was part of the Long War, fought between Christian and Ottoman forces at the end of the 16th – beginning of the 17th centuries.
The whole Ottoman force was estimated at 100,000 men, but not all of their troops were on the battlefield at Călugăreni. It seems that only about 30,000-40,000 Ottoman soldiers were involved in the battle.
Michael the Brave had in total about 15,000 men and about 12 large field cannons, with Transylvanian detachments. Michael the Brave strategically positioned his forces near a swampy field that would negate the Ottoman's military superiority. South of the village of Călugăreni, where the Câlniştea river flows into the Neajlov river, the terrain is a muddy marsh, surrounded by forests. A narrow bridge over the Neajlov river was a mandatory pass point. The battle had three different phases.
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