Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than 8 million and a metropolitan population of around 11 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. Located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau, at a height of over 900 m above sea level, Bangalore is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major cities of India.
The city's history dates back to around 890 CE, in a stone inscription found at the Nageshwara Temple in Begur, Bangalore. The Begur inscription is written in Halegannada, mentions 'Bengaluru Kalaga'. It was a significant turning point in the history of Bangalore as it bears the earliest reference to the name 'Bengaluru'. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore and its oldest areas, or petes, which exist to the present day.