José Teófilo de Jesus was a Brazilian painter and gilder. He is the most noted representative of the Escola Baiana or Bahian School of painting. His work was eclectic, characterized by the passage from the Baroque to the Rococo, with reference to Neoclassical traits. De Jesus was of pardo, or mixed ethnic ancestry and lived into his nineties; little else is known of his life. His production was apparently vast, but many of his works are only identified by oral tradition. Although he is known as one of the great names of the Brazilian Baroque, and one of its final artists, details of his life and a full account of his works remain unclear.