The July 1936 military uprising in Barcelona was a military uprising in Barcelona, the capital and largest city of Catalonia, Spain on 19 July 1936 which contributed to the start of the Spanish Civil War. Most of the Spanish Army officers in the city supported the coup, but the Civil Guard, the Assault Guard and the Mossos d'Esquadra remained loyal to the government. Furthermore, Barcelona was one of the strongholds of the anarchist union, the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. The rebel troops were defeated after bloody combat.
The defeat of the military coup in Barcelona was a great success for the Republic, although after the defeat of the Francoists it became clear that the workers' militias – in particular, the anarcho-syndicalist militias – were the ones that really controlled the city. The defeat of the rebels marked the beginning of the Spanish Revolution and also the beginning of a harsh repression in Catalonia against those suspected of being "fascist" or opposed to the revolution.