The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe. Joint Allied Forces Headquarters was operationally responsible for all Allied land forces in the Mediterranean theatre, and it planned and commanded the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, followed shortly thereafter in September by the invasion of the Italian mainland and the campaign on Italian soil until the surrender of the German Armed Forces in Italy in May 1945.
It is estimated that between September 1943 and April 1945, some 60,000–70,000 Allied and 38,805-150,660 German soldiers died in Italy. Overall Allied casualties during the campaign totaled about 320,000 and the corresponding German figure was over 330,000. Fascist Italy, prior to its collapse, suffered about 200,000 casualties, mostly POWs taken in the Allied invasion of Sicily, including more than 40,000 killed or missing. Besides them, over 150,000 Italian civilians died, as did 35,828 anti-Fascist partisans and some 35,000 troops of the Italian Social Republic.