Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign state located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Whether it should be regarded as a constitutional or an absolute monarchy is disputed. Its sole land border is with neighboring Gulf Cooperation Council monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. An arm of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby island monarchy of Bahrain.
In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates. Islam is the official religion of Qatar. The country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is widely regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural-gas reserves and oil reserves.
Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani founded the state in the early 19th century.