The Arab Cold War was a series of conflicts in the Arab world between the new republics led by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and espousing Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, and Pan-Arabism and the more traditionalist kingdoms, led by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. The period of conflict began following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and the rise to power of Nasser, and lasted until 1970, when he died, although some think it lasted until the final end of the Cold War in 1991.
Despite its beginnings during the global Cold War and era of European decolonization, and its links and interactions to that wider Cold War, the Arab Cold War was not a clash between capitalist and Marxist–Leninist regimes. The two sides were Arab nationalist republics, usually quasi-socialist and Pan-Arabist in orientation, and the traditional monarchies, usually with quasi-feudal or rentierist economic structures. The leading Arab nationalist state during this period was Egypt, closely followed by and in competition with Syria. The leading conservative monarchy was Saudi Arabia, with Jordan reluctantly falling in the same but competing camp.