Rudolf Kner was an Austrian zoologist and ichthyologist.
Kner was born in Linz. He studied medicine to completion and then worked at the Kaiserlichen Hof-Naturalienkabinett in Vienna, where he worked with Johann Jakob Heckel, among others. In 1841, he became professor for natural science at Lviv University. He returned to Vienna as professor of zoology. His primary field of study was ichthyology, with interests in paleontology and geology.
Kner died in Vienna.