Lunenburg is a port town in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, Canada. Situated on the province's South Shore, Lunenburg is located on the Fairhaven Peninsula at the western side of Mahone Bay. The town is approximately 90 kilometres southwest of the county boundary with the Halifax Regional Municipality.
The town was established by the four founding fathers, Patrick Sutherland, Dettlieb Christopher Jessen, John Creighton and Jean-Baptiste Moreau during Father Le Loutre's War, four years after Halifax was established. The town was one of the first British attempts to settle Protestants in Nova Scotia intended to displace Mi'kmaq and Acadian Catholics. British settlement posed a lasting, grave and certain threat to Mi'kmaq's control over their traditional territorial borders of Mi'kma'ki within Wabanaki. Considering that British conditions for peace required surrender of Mi'kmaq sovereignty to the Crown, Wabanaki groups raided Lunenburg nine times in the early years of the settlement in an attempt to reclaim their loss.
The historic town was designated a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site in 1995.