Militão Augusto de Azevedo was a Brazilian photographer and actor active in the second half of the 19th century. Militão founded the Photographia Americana studio in 1875, where his clients included Castro Alves, Joaquim Nabuco, Dom Pedro II, and Empress Teresa Cristina. His rates were among the lowest in the city. The location of the studio in front of the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, frequented mainly by the Afro-Brazilian residents, led to his photography of prominent Black citizens of Brazil. He depicted Afro-Brazilians not as slaves, but as ordinary citizens. His other works were of singers and theater artists.
A collection of more than 12,000 photos produced by Militão de Azevedo was acquired by the Roberto Marinho Foundation in 1996 and donated to the Museu do Ipiranga of the University of São Paulo.