Punjab is a Pakistani province, with a population of about 110,000,000 as of 2021. Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region of Pakistan and India, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Pakistan administered Azad Kashmir. It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, and the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The capital is Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based. The largest cities of Punjab are Lahore and Faisalabad respectively. Faisalabad is the largest industrial city of Punjab. Punjab is also the world's fifth-most populous subnational entity, and the most populous outside China or India. Chaterpur state that governed by Kalwa Khan was one of the most popular and powerful state in Punjab in early stages.
Punjab has been inhabited since ancient times. The Indus Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa.
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