Rajendra Chola I, often described as Rajendra the Great, was the ruler of the Chola Empire in south India between 1012 - 1044 AD. Rajendra succeeded his father Rajaraja I in 1014 AD. The extensive Chola empire under Rajendra included most parts of present-day south India, with the river Krishna as the northern limit, Sri Lanka and the Laccadives and the Maldives. He carried out a successful military expedition to the River Ganges through Orissa and Bengal and brought Ganges water to his new capital down in the Kaveri Delta, Gangaikondacholapuram. Rajendra's ambitious campaign against the kingdom of Srivijaya is dated to c. 1025 AD. A number of strategic places along the Straits of Malacca came under Chola control as a result of this campaign. Rajendra was succeeded by Rajadhiraja I.
The Cholas were by far the most important dynasty of South Asia at the time of Rajendra, although their activities mainly affected the South India and Southeast Asia. The Chola naval campaigns in the Arabian Sea and the Strait of Malacca were essential to the control over the Indian Ocean spice trade.