Timotheus of Miletus was a Greek musician and dithyrambic poet, an exponent of the "new music." He added one or more strings to the lyre, whereby he incurred the displeasure of the Spartans and Athenians. He composed musical works of a mythological and historical character.
He spent some years in the court of Archelaus I of Macedon.
Fragments of Timotheus' poetry survive, published in Denys Page, Poetae Melici Graeci. A papyrus-fragment of his Persians, discovered at Abusir has been edited by U. von Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, with discussion of the nome, meter, the number of strings of the lyre, date of the poet and fragment.