National History Museum

Museu Histórico Nacional

A brief stroll through Brazil's largest museum of history

Starting point
In the area where a city began, there is a place that tells the story of an entire country.

The idea of bringing together ingredients that tell the history of the country in one place came from this man, Gustavo Adolfo Luiz Guilherme Dodt da Cunha Barroso, who was a lawyer, teacher, museologist, and novelist.

The National History Museum was created in 1922. The country's first history museum, founded during celebrations of the centenary of independence, has become Brazil's most important.

Berlinda from the 18th century, which belonged to the Portuguese Royal Family.

Vehicle Protos, 17/31 OS Landaulet model with space for six people and a wooden body. One of only two copies left in the world.

Visitors are welcomed by the sculpture of Dom Pedro II, by Francisco Manoel Chaves Pinheiro, from 1866, which honors the episode of the Paraguayan War known as "The Surrender of Uruguaiana."

The Jenny Dreyfus Gallery is the first on the National History Museum's exhibition circuit. Temporary exhibitions take place here.

First inhabitants
When Europeans first came into contact with the inhabitants of the New World at the end of the 15th century and early 16th century, indigenous populations had been around for at least 500 centuries. Over this extended period, these populations had adapted to the environment and had built their dwellings, utensils, myths and knowledge, and culture.

On entering the exhibition there is a cave scene with cave paintings, found in the Serra da Capivara, located in the north of Brazil. The area has more than 400 archaeological sites.

The word "Oreretama" means our land, or dwelling, in Tupi, the linguistic trunk to which a large group of natives belong, descendants of the first inhabitants of this tropical land.

In the past people used these objects to grind food.

The indigenous peoples
The art, customs, and beliefs of the first inhabitants of Brazil have a prominent place in the National History Museum. Weapons, crafts, and even a video showing scenes of kuarup—a traditional Indian ritual—can be seen at this stage of the exhibition.

Aspects of indigenous life: Their art, weapons, and customs.

Weapons for defense and costumes for rituals.

Portugal in Brazil
The Portuguese maritime expansion, its causes and consequences, and the colonization of Brazil until the proclamation of independence are shown at long term exhibition.

The Portuguese sea voyages and their achievements are presented at the exhibition.

Pedro Álvares Cabral arrived in Brazil in 1500, inaugurating a new historical stage of our territory.

The presence of the Portuguese in Brazilian lands is recorded through various objects.

Portuguese coin minted in silver in 1499. It is called "O Índio" and is one of the only copies in the world.

Navigation instrument created by the Portuguese in the 15th century to measure the height of the stars above the horizon, the main reference point for navigation on the high seas.

To talk about the colonization of Brazil, the museum shows an animated model of a sugar mill and the shape that gave its name to the traditional tourist spot in Rio de Janeiro, Pão de Açúcar (Sugarloaf Mountain)

Between 1580 and 1640 Portugal and Spain formed the Iberian Union, result of the dynastic union of the thrones of the two countries. It was a period of invasions in Brazilian territory, especially by French and Dutch.

The Battle of Guararapes was one of the greatest conflicts in the colonial period. There were two clashes (between 1648 and 1649) between the Dutch and Portuguese-Brazilian armies at Morro dos Guararapes, the current municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, in the metropolitan region of Recife (PE).

1649 in ªa sesta Fr.ª On February 18 will see these mountains Guararapes, tinted from smiling spring with which has dressed the Olandes on this day, presages were of ruin, and announcements of their fortunate fortune, for when they were waiting for this occasion to reach the core of great joy, they would find themselves in the tumulus of the greatest feeling

not only will the favors of the Mother of God continue on the day the barbarian olandeses expected the glory of their triundum, as they wished in the course of the battle, and success in building it in our Holy Faith, and in the barbarous [...] of astonishment and confusion because human forces will not do the damage to their manifest eyes.

The due and sovereign impulse moved them to this with the breath of the fountain of life where they are only eternal; And clothed with these forces the few Portuguese will show the impulse of the very cause that encouraged them.

In this event we lost 40 men, among them the noble and valorous Sergeant Paulo da Cunha, whose burial was on Matriz da Várzea with honors and funerals of piety, and what was allowed the militia to such a person, leaving everyone hurt for the lack of his company and value that will be of immortal fame

and almost 3,000 Olandeses died. Who would have become divine [...} in language to praise [...] has no spirit, reach of your Son to serve and love you

Portuguese military corporals 1. o M. de C. G Fran. Bar. de Menezes.

2 M. de C. João Frz. Vieira. – 3. o M. de C. André Vidal de Negreiros.

4. M. de C. Fran de Figueiroa M. - 5. o Sargto M. Paulo da Cunha which died in battle. - 6. Sargto M. Tnt.º Dias.

7. o M. de C. Henrique Dias

8. o Gor. of Indians D. Diogo Pinheiro Camarão.

9. The Boqueirão principle of the 2 battles = Olandeses mililtary corporals 10. Gnal. Of arms - Colonel Brim killed in battle.

11. the colonels that will march in both battles. 12. The Gnal banner, which ours will take from Olandeses by force. Done at 1758.

Riches of Brazil. The "santa do pau-oco" (hollowed out saint carving), used to trade gold and precious stones, ores, and even oil, the country's great source of wealth, are remembered in this part of the exhibition.

The mining economy boosted Brazilian development, but the abusive and arbitrary fiscal control exercised by the Portuguese Crown gave rise to various revolt movements. Inconfidência Mineira became a symbol of the metropolis' resistance to power.

The exploration of gold also resulted in the emergence of artists such as Antônio Francisco Lisboa, also known as Aleijadinho.

The residence of João Rodrigues de Macedo, tax administrator of the captaincy of Minas Gerais, served as administrative office for activities related to the exploration of gold. It was imprisonment of the inconfidentes and in 1792 it became the House of the Tales, property of the Portuguese Real Estate, being the headquarters of the administration and public accounting of the Captaincy of Minas Gerais. Today it houses a museum that preserves the history of the gold cycle.

Aspects of the city of Rio de Janeiro were portrayed in paintings attributed to the artist Leandro Joaquim, in the famous series known as "ovals."

Oil on canvas attributed to Leandro Joaquim, entitled "Church and Praia da Glória," measuring 96.50 cm in height and 126.50 cm in diameter.

Oil on canvas attributed to Leandro Joaquim, entitled "Whaling in the Rio de Janeiro Bay," measuring 96 cm in height and 125.7 cm in width.

The coming of the Royal Family to Brazil in 1808 provoked a series of changes in relations between the two countries. The presence of the Portuguese court definitively modified the history of the then colony.

D. João and D. Carlota Joaquina became monarchs of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in 1816. The reign of King João VI left a lasting mark in nineteenth-century Brazil through the creation of a political and social structure which culminated in the independence of the country.

Rope toy representing a floating palace. It was presented by the Chinese government to Dom Pedro I when he was only five years old.

Chess game that belonged to D. Pedro I.

D. Pedro became the first emperor of Brazil after the proclamation of independence in 1822. His government faced crises but made possible the construction of the nation he bequeathed to his son, D. Pedro II.

D. Pedro II was acclaimed emperor in 1841 and ruled the country until 1889. His long reign consolidated the unification of the country, faced national and international conflicts and placed Brazil in a prominent position in the South American scenario.

During the reign of D. Pedro II began a new economic period, with the exploitation of the coffee culture.

General Manuel Luís Osório, also known as the Marquis of Herval, participated in many Brazilian military events in the late nineteenth century, such as the Paraguayan War. He is the patron of the Brazilian Army Cavalry.

A new economic reality gradually gained strength in the country, with the presence of European immigrants. The abolitionist movement grew and moved towards the end of slavery.

The political, economic and social issues of D. Pedro II government are present in the MHN exhibition circuit.

Princess Isabel was regent of the empire three times, and in 1888 signed the Golden Law, ending slavery in Brazil. Heir to D. Pedro II, would have assumed the throne after the death of the monarch had not occurred the proclamation of the Republic in 1889.

Pen presented to Princess Isabel, the Redeemer, on behalf of the Brazilian people, for the signing of the Lei Áurea, which abolished slavery.

The canvas was ripped by a sword at the Minister of War's office after the proclamation of the Republic. The Museum team chose to keep in this painting the record of that historical moment.

A new Brazil
The country evolves and the citizen conquers his space. The museum preserves the past, lives the present and reaffirms the Brazilian identity, comprehensive and diverse..

From classical to contemporary, a range of furniture is displayed in the National History Museum's collection

Toys from all eras are part of the museum collection.

A different museum
The National History Museum invests in different projects. Extra-mural activities are a constant feature and, just as the museum goes to the public, the public also seeks out the museum.

One of the National History Museum's traveling exhibitions. This museum goes out to meet the public.

Bringing culture to prisoners, another project of the National History Museum.

Musical event promoted by the Social Projects Sector at Patio Minerva.

Education Department: Serving students, teachers, and culture professionals.

Tuesday to Friday from 10h to 17h30; Saturdays, Sundays and holidays from 1 pm to 5 pm
Telephone: (21) 3299-0324 (Reception)
Observations: free admission on Sundays; temporary exhibitions may have specific times and ticket values.

General admission tickets: R$ 10,00
Reduced price admission tickets: R$ 5.00 (people aged up to 21 years and over 60, people with disabilities and their companion, students from private schools, students from private and public universities)

Free admission: children up to two years of age; students and teachers of public schools; members of ICOM - International Council of Museum; IBRAM and IPHAN staff; students of Museology; tour guides; artists associated with the SINAP-ESP and AIP organizations.

Credits: Story

President of Brazil
Michel Temer

Minister of State for Culture
Roberto Freire

President of Brazilian Museums Institute
Marcelo Mattos Araújo

Director of National History Museum
Paulo Knauss de Mendonça

Administrative Coordinator
Américo David Aurélio

Technical Coordinator
Vania Drummond Bonelli

Thanks to
José Caldas
Lau Torquato
Ricardo Bhering

MHN – 2017

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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