Fortress As A World Heritage <Fortresses of the World>

Namhansanseong World Heritage Center

A special exhibition commemorating the 1st anniversary of the registration of Namhansanseong Fortress as a UNESCO World Heritage Site 

On the occasion of this special exhibition titled Leading Fortresses of the World, which is being held to commemorate the 1st anniversary of the Inscription of Namhansanseong as a UNESCO World Heritage, we have displayed the materials about twenty-two world heritage sites that we used for comparative research while pursuing the inscription of the fortress as a UNESCO World Heritage site.   Our analysis of these sites has helped us to establish the value of Namhansanseong as a world heritage site and lay the groundwork for our research into major sites around the world that have been rehabilitated, after being placed at great risk of destruction by war and natural disasters, and selected as outstanding examples of restoration and preservation efforts.     As a result of our efforts, Namhansanseong was successfully registered as a UNESCO World Heritage in 2014 in recognition of its outstanding universal value.   As such, we are very pleased to hold be able to hold this special event as a way of presenting and maximizing the results of our research. The number of world heritage sites about which relevant materials are displayed at this exhibition comes to twenty-three in total, including seven in Asia, four in the Middle East, eleven in Europe, and one in South America.   Visitors to the exhibition will surely have the pleasure of discovering the originality of these marvellous world heritage sites, including Namhansanseong, and the harmonious way in which they blend in with their beautiful natural surroundings.   We at the Namhansanseong Culture & Tourist Initiatives will continue striving to protect the fortress as a cultural heritage, to enhance its value, and to conduct educational programs that exploit the cultural heritage in an intelligent and effective manner.
Namhansanseong of Republic of Korea 
Located 25km southeast of downtown Seoul, Namhansanseong was originally built as a defense structure. During the Joseon Period (1392-1910), diverse facilities were built here and the walls were expanded to transform it into a temporary capital for use in the event of an emergency. The structure incorporated all the concepts of military defense engineering available at that time, including the castle systems of China and Japan, as the techniques for building castles and fortresses were changing with the adoption of firearms from the West. Since then it has served as a defense facility for the areas close to Seoul, and people have continued to live within the area. Traces of former military, civilian, and religious facilities can still be seen there. Criterion (ⅱ): The design and construction of Namhansanseong incorporated all the military defense engineering concepts available in Southeast Asia in the seventeenth century. The fortress was built in consideration of the new threat posed by the adoption of firearms from western countries, based on a review of the castle systems of Korea and China. The construction of the fortress was an important turning point in fortress design in Korea. Criterion (ⅳ): Namhansanseong is a good example of a fortified city. The installation of facilities to enable the fortress to be used as a temporary capital in the event of an emergency was carried out by Buddhist monks in the seventeenth century. The defense of the fortress was also assumed by them. Country: Republic of Korea Location: Extending across Gwangju, Seongnam, and Hanam, Gyeonggi-do Coordinates: N 37° 28′ 44″, E 127° 10′ 52″ Inscription year: 2014 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅳ
The Great Wall
The Great Wall of China is a vast defense facility whose construction was begun during the reign of Emperor Qin Shi Huang to defend the country against invasion by northern tribes, and continued right up until the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Universally recognized as one of the grandest military facilities in the world, it is a superb architectural heritage, in addition to being a historically and strategically important defense facility. Criterion (ⅰ): Completed during the Ming Dynasty, the Great Wall of China is an architectural masterpiece of magnificent scale. It is said to be the only manmade structure on the Earth that can be observed from the Moon. It is a perfect architecture that blends in with its natural surroundings. Criterion (ⅱ): During the Spring and Autumn period, the Chinese built a defensive wall along the country’s northern border, establishing their own methods of construction and spatial structures. China’s expansion became even more conspicuous due to the mass mobilization and movement of people for the construction work. Criterion (ⅲ): The Great Wall is a living testament to the civilization of ancient China. During the Western Han Dynasty, a part of the Wall in Gansu Province was built by means of soil compaction, which is acclaimed as a unique yet universal method of construction. Criterion (ⅳ): The Great Wall of China is a complex and encompassing cultural asset built over a long period of time. It is a military structure that has been preserved and maintained for over 2,000 years purely for its defensive purpose. It shows that the skills used in its construction continued to develop amid changes in defense tactics and the political situation. Criterion (ⅵ):The Great Wall of China has become the most important and symbolic structure in the country’s history. The main purpose of the Wall was to fend off hostile forces and protect Chinese culture from invaders. Diverse stories about the people who were mobilized for the Wall’s construction are contained in Yinma Changcheng Kuhang (飮馬長城窟行) written by Chen Lin in about 200 AD, the poems of Du Fu (712~770), and novels written during the Ming Dynasty. Country: China Location: Extending across Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei Provinces Coordinates: N 40° 25′ 0.012″, E 116° 4′59.988″ Inscription year: 1987 Inscription criteria: ⅰ, ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ, ⅵ
Ancient City of Ping Yao
The Ancient City of Ping Yao, which dates from the Han Dynasty (206BC-220 AD), shows how architectural styles and urban planning developed during the dynasty. The well-preserved fortified wall (height: 12m; length: 6.4km) surrounding the city is equipped with six gates and semi-circular bulwarks outside them, four pavilions, and seventy-two watchtowers. More than 4,000 well-preserved houses dating back to the Ming and Qing Periods are still inhabited to this day. Country: China Location: Pingyao County, Shanxi Province Coordinates: N 37° 12′ 5.004″, E 112° 9′ 15.984″ Inscription year: 1997 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ
Historic Centre of Macao
Macao, which came under the control of Portugal in the mid-sixteenth century, was returned to China in 1999. The Historic Centre of Macao, which is packed with many Portuguese and Chinese-style religious and public buildings, is the place where the local inhabitants had their first contact with Westerners. The area displays numerous traces of the country’s exchanges of culture, architecture, and technologies with western countries. Leading landmarks of the area are a lighthouse and Guia Fortress, which is one of the oldest forts in China. Criterion (ⅱ): Macao is an area in which exchanges took place between China and Portugal over several centuries in the areas of culture, science, technology, art, and architecture under the special relationship established between the two countries. Criterion (ⅲ): Macao is an area that has witnessed exchanges between China and western countries since the sixteenth century as a center of activity for trading businesses, missionaries, and scholars engaging in diverse academic disciplines. Traces of those exchanges can be seen in culture conversion featuring the core part of the center. Criterion (ⅳ): Macao is a fine example of an architectural heritage bearing testimony to the encounter between Chinese and western civilizations that took place over a period of more than 450 years. Former sea routes linking Macao with cities in Portugal attest to this heritage. Criterion (ⅵ): Macao has long served as a channel for exchanges of culture, religion, science, and technology developed in China and Western countries. Philosophies developed through this process have played a decisive role in pushing ahead with changes in China, including the establishment of an early modern republic. Country: China Location: Macao Special Administrative Region Coordinates: N 22° 11′ 28.651″, E 113° 32′ 11.26″ Inscription year: 2005 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ, ⅵ
Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang
The Forbidden City in Beijing served as an imperial palace – and magnificent symbol of the power and authority of the ruler – for five centuries (1416~1911). It consists of 10,000 or so rooms containing numerous items of furniture and artworks, and has beautifully laid out gardens. The Imperial Palace and the heritage objects preserved within its precincts testify to the splendid Chinese civilization of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The Imperial Palace in Shenyang consists of 114 buildings, including Wensuge Library, built during the Qing Dynasty. It served as the crucial basis of the Chinese dynasties until the relocation of the capital to Beijing. It is a remarkable building containing traces of the cultural traditions of the Qing Dynasty and the northern tribes of China, including the Manchurians. Criterion (ⅰ): Forbidden City in Beijing and the Imperial Palace in Shenyang are masterpieces of palace architecture. Criterion (ⅱ): The Imperial Palace in Shenyang, in particular, was an important turning point in traditional architecture and palace architecture of China in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Criterion (ⅲ): The imperial palaces preserve much ancient furniture and many artworks. Their natural surroundings are also well preserved. One unique aspect of Chinese civilization is the fact that the Chinese have maintained the traditional customs of the Manchurian tribes for centuries. Criterion (ⅳ):The imperial palaces are leading examples of China’s magnificent architectural tradition. They display the traditions of both the Chinese dynasties and the Manchurian tribes, as well as the development of Chinese architecture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Country: China Location: Beijing and Shenyang Coordinates: N 41° 47′ 39″, E 123° 26′ 49″ Inscription year: 1987 (expanded in 2004) Inscription criteria: ⅰ, ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ
Old Town of Lijiang
The Old Town of Lijiang is perfectly adapted to the uneven topography of the area, and has become a key commercial and strategic site. One of its most features is an ancient water-supply system that still functions effectively today. The town displays great universal value and authenticity. Its architecture is noteworthy for the blending of elements from several cultures that have come together over many centuries. Country: China Location: Old Town of Lijiang Coordinates: N 37° 45′ 1″, E 4° 46′ 47″ Inscription year: 1997 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅳ, ⅴ
Himeji-jo Castle is the finest surviving example of an early seventeenth-century Japanese castle, comprising eighty-three buildings equipped with highly developed systems of defense and ingenious protective devices dating from the beginning of the Shogun period. It is a masterpiece of construction in wood, combining function with aesthetic appeal, both in its elegant appearance, unified by the white plastered earthen walls, and in the subtlety of the relationships between the buildings and the multiple roof layers. Criterion (ⅰ): The castle is a masterpiece of construction in wood, combining function with aesthetic appeal, both in its elegant appearance, unified by the white plastered earthen walls, and in the subtlety of the relationships between the building masses and the multiple roof layers. Criterion (ⅲ): The castle is a powerful symbol of the Bakufu, the military government that was in power before the Meiji Restoration (1868-1889). Criterion (ⅳ): The castle is a well-preserved structure that combines all the important features of Japanese wooden structures.
Angkor is one of the most important archaeological sites in Southeast Asia. Extending over some 400 km2, including a densely forested area, Angkor Archaeological Park contains the magnificent remains of the different capitals of the Khmer Empire, from the ninth to the fifteenth century, including the famous Temple of Angkor Wat and, at Angkor Thom, the Bayon Temple. Criterion (ⅰ): The Angkor complex represents the entire spectrum of Khmer art from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries, and includes a number of indisputable artistic masterpieces (e.g. Angkor Wat, Bayon Temple, and Banteay Srei). Criterion (ⅱ): The Khmer art developed at Angkor had a profound influence over much of Southeast Asia and played a fundamental role in its distinctive evolution. Criterion (ⅲ): The Khmer Empire of the ninth to the fourteenth centuries encompassed much of Southeast Asia and played a formative role in the political and cultural development of the region. Criterion (ⅳ): Khmer architecture evolved largely from that of the Indian subcontinent, from which it soon became clearly distinct as it developed its own special characteristics, some independently evolved and others acquired from neighboring cultural traditions. The result was a new artistic horizon in oriental art and architecture. Country: Cambodia Location: Siem Reap Province Coordinates: N 13° 25′ 60″, E 103° 49′ 60″ Inscription year: 1992 Inscription Criteria: ⅰ, ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ
Hill Forts of Rajasthan(chittorgarh Fort)
This serial site, situated in the state of Rajastahan, includes six majestic forts. The eclectic architecture of the forts, some of which have a perimeter of many kilometres, bears testimony to the power of the Rajput princely states that flourished in the region from the eighth to the eighteenth centuries. Enclosed within defensive walls are major urban centers, palaces, trading centers and other buildings, including temples that often predate the fortifications within which developed an elaborate courtly culture that supported learning, music and the arts. Some of the urban centers enclosed in the fortifications have survived, as have many of the site's temples and other sacred buildings. The forts use the natural defenses offered by the landscape: hills, deserts, rivers, and dense forests. They also feature extensive water harvesting structures that are, for the most part, still in use today. Criterion (ⅱ): The Hill Forts of Rajasthan exhibit an important interchange of Princely Rajput ideologies in fort planning, art and architecture from the early medieval to late medieval period, within the varied physiographic and cultural zones of Rajasthan. Although Rajput architecture shared much common ground with other regional styles, such as Sultanate and Mughal architecture, it was highly eclectic, drawing inspiration from antecedents and neighbors, and had a degree of influence over later regional styles such as Maratha architecture. Criterion (ⅲ): The series of six massive hill forts are architectural manifestations of Rajput valor, bravery, feudalism and cultural traditions, as documented in several historic texts and paintings of the medieval and late medieval period in India. Country: India Location: Rajastahan State Coordinates: N 24° 52′ 60″, E 74° 38′ 46″ Inscription year: 2013 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅲ
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments
St. Petersburg, dubbed the 'Venice of the North' due to its numerous canals and more than 400 bridges, is the result of a vast urban project begun in 1703 under Peter the Great. Later known as Leningrad (in the former USSR), the city is closely associated with the October Revolution. Its architectural heritage reconciles the very different Baroque and pure neoclassical styles, as can be seen in the Admiralty, the Winter Palace, the Marble Palace and the Hermitage. Criterion (ⅰ): In the field of urban design, Saint Petersburg represents a unique artistic achievement in the sheer ambition of the program, the coherency of the plan, and the speed of its execution. From 1703 to 1725, Peter the Great raised – from a landscape of marshes, peat bogs and rocks – architectural styles in stone and marble for his capital, Saint Petersburg, which he wished to be the most beautiful city in all of Europe. Criterion (ⅱ): The ensembles designed in Saint Petersburg and the surrounding area by Rastrelli, Vallin de la Mothe, Cameron, Rinaldi, Zakharov, Voronikhine, Rossi, Montferrand and others exerted great influence on the development of architecture and monumental arts in Russia and Finland in the 18th and 19th centuries. Criterion (ⅳ): The palaces of Peterhof (Petrodvorets) and Tsarskoye Selo (Pushkin), which were restored following their destruction during the Second World War, figure among the city’s most significant constructions. Criterion (ⅵ): Saint Petersburg was twice directly and tangibly associated with events of universal significance. The construction of Saint Petersburg, between 1703 and 1725, symbolizes the opening of Russia to the western world and the emergence of the empire of the Tsars on the international scene. The Bolshevik Revolution triumphed in Petrograd in 1917 (the city had been renamed in 1914). Country: Russian Federation Location: Saint Petersburg Coordinates: N 59° 57′ 0″, E 30° 19′ 5.988″ Inscription year: 1990 Inscription criteria: ⅰ, ⅱ, ⅳ, ⅵ
Historic Centre of Bukhara
Bukhara, which is situated on the Silk Route, is more than 2,000 years old. It is the most complete example of a medieval city in Central Asia, with an urban fabric that has remained largely intact. Monuments of particular interest include the famous tomb of Ismail Samani, a masterpiece of tenth-century Muslim architecture, and a large number of seventeenth-century madrasas. Criterion (ⅱ): The example of Bukhara in terms of its urban layout and buildings had a profound influence on the evolution and planning of towns in a wide region of Central Asia. Criterion (ⅳ): Bukhara is the most complete and unspoiled example of a medieval Central Asian town whose urban fabric has been preserved to the present day. Criterion (ⅵ): Between the ninth and sixteenth centuries, Bukhara was the largest centre of Muslim theology, particularly Sufism, in the Near East, with over two hundred mosques and more than a hundred madrasahs. Country: Uzbekistan Location: Bukhara region Coordinates: N 59° 57′ 0″, E 30° 19′ 5.988″ Inscription year: 1990 Inscription criteria: ⅰ, ⅱ, ⅳ, ⅵ
Itchan Kala
Itchan Kala is the inner town (protected by brick walls some 10 m high) of the old Khiva oasis, which was the last watering hole for caravans before crossing the desert to Iran. Although few very old monuments remain, it is a coherent and well-preserved example of the Muslim architecture of Central Asia. There are several outstanding structures such as the Djuma Mosque, and the mausoleums, madrasas and two magnificent palaces built at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Alla-Kulli-Khan. Criterion (ⅲ): With the coherent and well-preserved urban ensemble of the inner town of Khiva, Itchan Kala bears exceptional testimony to the lost civilizations of Khorezm. Criterion (ⅳ): Several monuments of Itchan Kala constitute remarkable and unique types of architectural ensembles, built according to the ancient traditions of Central Asia. The attributes are outstanding examples of Islamic architecture of Central Asia. The Djuma Mosque, with its covered courtyard designed for the rugged climate of Central Asia, is unique in its proportions and the dimensions of its inner structure (55m x 46m), faintly lit by two octagonal lanterns and adorned with 212 columns. The madrasahs making up the social areas boast majestic proportions with simple decoration, forming another type of Islamic architecture specific to Central Asia. Criterion (ⅴ): The traditional domestic architecture of Khiva represents an important example of human settlements in Central Asia by virtue of its design and construction. Its enclosed houses, with their courtyard, reception room with portico or avian supported by delicately sculptured wooden posts, and private apartments, are also an important attribute of the site that can be studied from the perspective of its eighteenth- and twentieth-century morphological variants. Country: Uzbekistan Location: Khiva, Khorezm Province Coordinates: N 41° 22′ 41.988″, E 60° 21′ 50.004″ Inscription year: 1990 Inscription criteria: ⅲ, ⅳ, ⅴ
Bahla Fort
The oasis of Bahla owes its prosperity to the Banu Nebhan, the dominant tribe in the area from the twelfth to the end of the fifteenth century. The ruins of the immense fort, with its walls and towers of unbaked brick and its stone foundations, constitute a remarkable example of this type of fortification and attest to the power of the Banu Nebhan. Criterion (ⅳ): The Bahla Fort and the oasis settlement with its perimeter fortification are an outstanding example of a type of defensive architectural ensemble that enabled dominant tribes to achieve prosperity in Oman and the Arabian Peninsula during the late medieval period. Country: Oman Location: Oasis of Bahla, 25 km west of Nazwa Coordinates: N 22° 57′ 51.012″, E 57° 18′ 3.996″ Inscription year: 1987 Inscription Criterion: ⅳ
Situated in the Judean Desert overlooking the Dead Sea, Masada is a rugged natural fortress of majestic beauty It is a symbol of the ancient kingdom of Israel, its violent destruction and the last stand of Jewish patriots in the face of the Roman army, in 73 A.D. It was built as a palace complex, in the classic style of the early Roman Empire, by Herod the Great, King of Judaea, (r. 37 – 4 B.C.). The camps, fortifications and attack ramp that encircle the monument constitute the most complete Roman siege works surviving to the present day. Criterion (ⅲ): Masada is a symbol of the ancient Jewish Kingdom of Israel, of its violent destruction in the later first century CE, and of the subsequent Diaspora. Criterion (ⅳ): The Palace of Herod the Great at Masada is an outstanding example of a luxurious villa of the Early Roman Empire, while the camps and other fortifications that encircle the monument constitute the finest and most complete Roman siege works to have survived to the present day. Criterion (ⅵ): The tragic events during the last days of the Jewish refugees who occupied the fortress and palace of Masada make it a symbol both of Jewish cultural identity and, more universally, of the continuing human struggle between oppression and liberty. Country: Israel Location: South of Israel Coordinates: N 31° 18′ 48.6″, E 35° 21′ 9.9″ Inscription year: 2001 Inscription criteria: ⅲ, ⅳ, ⅵ
Biblical Tels Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba 
Tels (prehistoric settlement mounds) are characteristic of the flatter lands of the eastern Mediterranean, particularly Lebanon, Syria, Israel and eastern Turkey. Of the more than 200 tels found in Israel, Megiddo, Hazor and Beer Sheba are representative of those that contain substantial remains of cities with biblical connections. The three tels also present some of the best examples in the Levant of the elaborate Iron Age underground water-collection systems created to serve dense urban communities. Surviving traces of their construction over the millennia reflect the existence of a centralized authority, prosperous agricultural activity, and the control of important trade routes Criterion (ⅱ): The three tels represent an interchange of human values throughout the ancient Near East, forged through extensive trade routes and alliances with other states, and manifest in building styles which merged Egyptian, Syrian and Aegean influences to create a distinctive local style. Criterion (ⅲ): The three tels are a testimony to a civilization that disappeared long ago - that of the Canaanite cities of the Bronze Age and the biblical cities of the Iron Age – but which continues to manifest itself in their expressions of creativity with regard to town planning, fortifications, palaces, and water collection technologies. Criterion (ⅳ): The Biblical cities reflect the key stages of urban development in the Levant, which exerted a powerful influence on the later history of the region. Criterion (ⅵ): The three tels are mentioned in the Bible, and thus constitute a religious and spiritual testimony of Outstanding Universal Value. Country: Israel Location: Megiddo, Hazor and Beer Sheba Coordinates: N 32° 35′ 49.992″, E 35° 10′ 55.992″ Inscription year: 2005 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ, ⅵ
Old City of Jerusalem and Its Walls
As a holy city for Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Jerusalem has always been of great symbolic importance. Among its 220 historic monuments, the Dome of the Rock stands out: built in the seventh century, it is decorated with beautiful geometric and floral motifs. It is recognized by all three religions as the site of Abraham's sacrifice. The Wailing Wall delimits the quarters of the different religious communities, while the Resurrection Rotunda in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher houses Christ's tomb. Country: Jerusalem / Site proposed by Jordan Location: Jerusalem District Coordinates: N31 46 60, E35 13 0 Inscription year: 1981 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅵ
Old City of Dubrovnik
The 'Pearl of the Adriatic', situated on the Dalmatian coast, became main port of an important Mediterranean sea power from the thirteenth century onwards. Although severely damaged by an earthquake in 1667, Dubrovnik managed to preserve its beautiful Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque churches, monasteries, palaces and fountains. Damaged again in the 1990s by armed conflict, it is now the focus of a major restoration program coordinated by UNESCO. As a fortified city, Dubrovnik retains a medieval-style castle wall, streets, plaza, impressive public and religious buildings, and private houses. Dubrovnik is deemed to have outstanding value in consideration of its urban, cultural, and historical messages, in addition to the unique artistic value of its buildings. Country: Croatia Location: County of Dubrovnik-Neretva Coordinates: N 42° 39′ 2.016″, E 18° 5′ 29.004″ Inscription year: 1994 Inscription Criteria: ⅰ, ⅲ, ⅳ
Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn
The origins of Tallinn date back to the thirteenth century, when a castle was built there by the crusading knights of the Teutonic Order. It developed as a major centre of the Hanseatic League, and its wealth is demonstrated by the opulence of the public buildings (the churches in particular) and the domestic architecture of the merchants' houses, which have survived to a remarkable degree despite the ravages of fire and war in the intervening centuries. Criteria (ⅱ), (ⅳ): The town plan and the buildings within it constitute a remarkable example of a well-preserved medieval trading center and an economic/social community with its own unique style. Country: Estonia Location: County of Harju Coordinates: N59 25 59.988, E24 43 60 Inscription year: 1997 (revised in 2008) Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅳ
Medieval City of Rhodes
The Order of St John of Jerusalem occupied Rhodes from 1309 to 1523 and set about transforming the city into a stronghold. It subsequently came under Turkish and Italian rule. With the Palace of the Grand Masters, the Great Hospital and the Street of the Knights, the Upper Town is one of the most beautiful urban ensembles of the Gothic period. In the Lower Town, Gothic architecture coexists with mosques, public baths and other buildings dating from the Ottoman period. Criterion (ⅱ): The City of Rhodes exerted a significant influence in the Mediterranean towards the end of the Medieval Period. It was known as an invulnerable “Frankish” city for a long time. Criterion (ⅳ): The cultural heritage objects remaining in the city show that the Order of St. John, formed during the Crusades, maintained the city for a long time despite the extreme fear that they might be occupied at any time. The buildings in the city are also architectural reflections of this aspect of the island’s history. It is also worth noting here that the Colossus of Rhodes was once one of the seven wonders of the Ancient World. It needs to be remembered that the history of architecture here did not end with the fall of the city in 1523, but continued until 1912, when it fell to the Italians, in the Islamic buildings such as mosques and public baths that were built under Ottoman rule. Criterion (ⅴ): The old town of Rhodes shows a mixture of Frankish and Ottoman-style buildings, the result of acculturation. There were changes in the Gothic architectural styles amid the encounter with the Dodecanese tradition. Ornamental elements were added to them in 1523 and thereafter. Country: Greece Location: Prefecture of Dodecanese Coordinates: N36 26 49.992, E28 13 40.008 Inscription year: 1988 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅳ, ⅴ
Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrassy Avenue
Budapest contains the remains of such monuments as the Roman city of Aquincum and the Gothic castle of Buda, which have had a considerable influence on the architecture of various periods. It is one of the world's outstanding urban landscapes and illustrates the great periods in the history of the Hungarian capital. Criterion (ⅱ): While Aquincum played a crucial role in the diffusion of Roman architectural forms in Pannonia, then in Dacia, Buda Castle played an essential part in the diffusion of Gothic art in the Magyar region from the fourteenth century. During the reign of Matthias Corvinus, Buda became an artistic center comparable, due to its influence, to that of Cracow, which was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage in 1978. Criterion (ⅳ): Buda Castle is an architectural ensemble which, together with the nearby old district (the Buda Castle Quarter), illustrates two significant periods of history which were separated by an interval corresponding to the Turkish invasion. The Parliament is also an outstanding example of a great official building on a par with those of London, Munich, Vienna and Athens, exemplifying the eclectic architecture of the 19th century while symbolizing the political function of the second capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Country: Hungary Location: Budapest Coordinates: N47 28 56.712, E19 4 14.412 Inscription year: 1987 (expanded in 2002) Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅳ
Historic Centre of Prague
Built between the eleventh and eighteenth centuries, the Old Town, the Lesser Town and the New Town speak of the great architectural and cultural influence enjoyed by this city since the Middle Ages. The many magnificent monuments, such as Hradcani Castle, St Vitus Cathedral, Charles Bridge and numerous churches and palaces, were built mostly in the 14th century under the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV. Criterion (ⅱ): The historic center of Prague admirably illustrates the process of continuous urban growth from the Middle Ages to the present day. Its important role in the political, economic, social, and cultural evolution of central Europe from the fourteenth century onwards and the richness of its architectural and artistic traditions meant that it served as a major model for urban development for much of central and eastern Europe. Criterion (ⅳ): Prague is an urban architectural ensemble of outstanding quality, in terms of both its individual monuments and its townscape, and one that is deservedly world-famous. Criterion (ⅵ): The role played by Prague in the medieval development of Christianity in central Europe was an outstanding one. By virtue of its political significance in the later Middle Ages and after, it attracted architects and artists from all over Europe, who contributed to its wealth of architectural and artistic treasures Country: Czech Republic Location: Prague Coordinates: N50 5 22.992, E14 25 9.984 Inscription year: 1992 Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅳ, ⅵ
Historic Centre of .esky Krumlov
Situated on the banks of the Vltava River, the town was built around a thirteenth-century castle with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque elements. Český Krumlov is an outstanding example of a small central European medieval town whose architectural heritage has remained intact thanks to its peaceful evolution over more than five centuries. Criterion (ⅳ): Český Krumlov was an economically important city for about five centuries. It has stood out among small cities in Europe since the Middle Ages, thanks to its many historically valuable buildings. It displays a well-developed urban infrastructure of a city located in the basin of the beautiful Vltava River. Country: Czech Republic Location: South Bohemian Region Coordinates: N48 49 0, E14 19 0 Inscription year: 1992 Inscription criterion: ⅳ
Frontiers of the Roman Empire
At its height the Roman Empire extended into three continents. Its borders reflected the waxing and waning of Roman power over more than one millennium. The Limes Germanicus (Latin for ‘Germanic frontier’) was a defensive wall built to defend the Roman Empire from Germanic tribes in the period 83-260 AD. The emperor Augustus started building forts along the border after the catastrophic defeat of three Roman legions at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 BC. However, it is now thought that the Limes Germanicus was not intended as a defensive structure against Germanic tribes, but rather as a mean of controlling the movements of ordinary people or tradespeople. Criterion (ⅱ): Hadrian’s Wall exerted great influence on the formation of the border in Britain for about 300 years. The border now forms part of the area between the Tyne and Solway rivers. Criterion (ⅲ): This military area is a good example of a large Roman outpost established in conquered territory. Small civilian settlements in Chesterholm, Vindolanda were used as places of residence for soldiers and their families rather than as fortified trenches in peacetime. Criterion (ⅳ): Hadrian’s Wall is a good example of a fortified border. It shows an ambitious and consistent defense system of the Roman Empire made perfect by engineers for generations. This cultural heritage is undoubtedly a good referential material with universal value in many respects, including military architectural technique, strategic design in a monarchical period, land use in a border area, and spatial organization-related policy. Country: Germany Location: Saalburg Coordinates: N54 59 33.4 W2 36 3.6 50°16 '18.8"N 8°33'59.6"E Inscription year: 1987 (2005; 2008) Inscription criteria: ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ
Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg
Salzburg has managed to preserve an extraordinarily rich urban fabric, developed over the period from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century, when it was a city-state ruled by a prince-archbishop. Its Flamboyant Gothic art attracted many craftsmen and artists before the city became even better known through the work of the Italian architects Vincenzo Scamozzi and Santini Solari, to whom the center of Salzburg owes much of its Baroque appearance. The city is famous as the birthplace of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Criterion (ⅱ): Salzburg played a crucial role in the exchange between Italian and German cultures, resulting in a flowering of the two cultures and long-lasting exchanges between them. Criterion (ⅳ): Salzburg is an exceptionally important example of a European ecclesiastical city-state, with a remarkable number of high-quality buildings, both secular and ecclesiastical, from periods ranging from the late Middle Ages to the twentieth century. Criterion (ⅵ): Salzburg is noteworthy for its associations with the arts, and in particular with music, in the person of its most famous son, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Country: Austria Location: Salzburg Coordinates: N47 48 2, E13 2 36 Inscription year: 1996 Inscription criteria: ⅱ,ⅳ,ⅵ
City of Luxembourg:its Old Quarters and Fortifications
Owing to its strategic position, Luxembourg was, from the sixteenth century until 1867, when its walls were dismantled, one of Europe's greatest fortified sites. It was repeatedly reinforced as it passed from one great European power to another: the Holy Roman Emperors, the House of Burgundy, the Habsburgs, the French and Spanish kings, and finally the Prussians. Until their partial demolition, the fortifications were a fine example of military architecture for centuries. Criterion (ⅳ): Fortified cities in Luxembourg such as this played an important role in European history for centuries. Important historic sites like remarkable forts set against a natural background and old quarters have been preserved in good condition. Country: Luxembourg Location: Luxembourg Coordinates: N49 36 36, E6 7 59.988 Inscription year: 1994 Inscription criterion: ⅳ
Fortifications of Vauban
The Fortifications of Vauban consist of twelve groups of fortified buildings and sites along the western, northern and eastern border of France. They represent the finest examples of the work of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707), a military engineer of King Louis XIV. The serial property includes towns built from scratch by Vauban, citadels, urban bastion walls and bastion towers. There are also mountain forts, sea forts, a mountain battery and two mountain communication structures. This property is inscribed as bearing witness to the peak of classical fortifications, typical of western military architecture. Vauban also played a major role in the history of fortification in Europe and on other continents until the mid-nineteenth century. Criterion (ⅰ): Vauban’s work bears witness to the peak of classic bastioned fortifications, typical of western military architecture of modern times.. Criterion (ⅱ): Vauban played a major role in the history of fortification. The many imitations of his standard models of military buildings in Europe and on the American continent, and the dissemination in Russian and Turkish of his theoretical thinking, along with the use of the forms of his fortification as a model for fortresses in the Far East, bear witness to the universality of his work. Criterion (ⅳ): Vauban’s work illustrates a significant period of human history. It is a work of the mind applied to military strategy, architecture and construction, civil engineering, and economic and social organization. Country: France Location: Vauban Coordinates: N50 16 57, E2 45 32 Inscription year: 2008 Inscription criteria: ⅰ, ⅱ, ⅳ
Historic City of Toledo
Successively a Roman municipium, the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom, a fortress of the Emirate of Córdoba, an outpost of the Christian kingdoms fighting the Moors and, in the 16th century, the temporary seat of supreme power under Charles V, Toledo is the repository of more than 2,000 years of history. Its masterpieces are the product of heterogeneous civilizations in an environment where the existence of three major religions – Judaism, Christianity and Islam – was a major factor. Criterion (ⅰ): Overall, the City of Toledo is an entity of unique and remarkable artistic accomplishments ranging from Visigothic to Baroque architecture of the early eighteenth century. Criterion (ⅱ): Toledo exerted a great influence on the Visigothic Kingdom, which spread to Narbonne in France during the Renaissance Period. Criterion (ⅲ): Toledo bears witness to a number of vanished civilizations, including Rome, which left traces of an amphitheater, canals, and sewage facilities, and the Visigothic Kingdom, which a left castle wall built by King Wamba and handicrafts now kept at the Santa Cruz Museum. The Emirate of Córdoba created many Islamic style artistic monuments. Criterion (ⅳ): Toledo contains many masterpieces of architecture dating from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries including the Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes, Grand Cathedral, Cathedral San Juan Bautista, Hospital of Santa Cruz, Puerta Nueva de Bisagra. These religious, military, and hospital buildings are good examples of architecture dating back to Spain’s Golden Age. Toledo, which emerged during the Middle Age, is the birthplace of the Mudéjar style. Monuments of the Mudéjar style, which combined structural and ornamental elements of both Visigothic and Islamic art and fused them with other later emerging styles, include Santiago del Arrabal (13th century), Moorish workshops and the Puerta del Sol area (14th century), the wainscot panel walls of the Hospital of Santa Cruz, and a meeting place for priests in the Grand Cathedral (15th and 16th centuries). Country: Spain Location: Autonomous Community of Castile-La Mancha Coordinates: N39 52 0.8 W4 1 45.9 Inscription year: 1986 Inscription criteria: ⅰ,ⅱ,ⅲ,ⅳ
Historic Walled Town of Cuenca
Built by the Moors in a defensive position at the heart of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Cuenca is an unusually well-preserved medieval fortified city. Conquered by the Castilians in the twelfth century, it became a royal town and bishopric endowed with important buildings, such as Spain's first Gothic cathedral, and the famous casas colgadas (hanging houses), suspended from sheer cliffs overlooking the Huécar River. Taking full advantage of its location, the city towers above the magnificent countryside. Criteria (ⅱ), (ⅲ): The site has preserved its original townscape remarkably intact along with many excellent examples of religious and secular architecture from the twelfth to the eighteenth centuries. It is also exceptional because the walled town blends into and enhances the fine rural and natural landscape within which it is situated. Country: Spain Location: Autonomous Community of Castile-La Mancha Coordinates: N 39° 52′ 0.8″, W 4° 1′ 45.9” Inscription year: 1986 Inscription Criteria: ⅱ, ⅲ
Historic Centre of Cordoba
Córdoba's period of greatest glory began in the eighth century after the Moorish conquest, when some 300 mosques and innumerable palaces and public buildings were built to rival the splendours of Constantinople, Damascus and Baghdad. They are defensive structures of the city, particularly the Torre Fortaleza de la Calahorra and the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos, are famous. Country: Spain Location: Autonomous Community of Andalusia Coordinates: N37 52 45.1 W4 46 47 Inscription year: 1984 (expanded in 1994) Inscription Criteria: ⅰ, ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ
Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzin, Granada
Rising above the modern lower town, the Alhambra and the Albayzín, situated on two adjacent hills, form the medieval part of Granada. To the east of the Alhambra fortress and residence are the magnificent gardens of the Generalife, the former rural residence of the emirs who ruled this part of Spain in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The residential district of the Albayzín is a rich repository of Moorish vernacular architecture, into which the traditional Andalusian architecture blends harmoniously. Criterion (ⅳ): The Albayzín still maintains the characteristics of a Moorish settlement despite the urban development undertaken following its reconquest by Christians, and the locals’ return to a Christian way of life. Indeed, its overall appearance, urban structure, and major architectural features have not changed. Buildings formerly used as mosques are now used as churches or monasteries. Many people are fascinated by the harmonious esthetic quality of the city. The city remains an outstanding example of Moorish-style cities today, 500 years after the Reconquista. Criterion (ⅴ): The Albayzín is still a livable city. The city is a treasure trove of unique Moorish architecture that converged with traditional the Andalusian style. Ordinary buildings have been absorbed into the urban structure built by the Moors during the Middle Ages. Country: Spain Location: Autonomous Community of Andalusia Coordinates: N 37° 52′ 45.1″, W 4° 46′ 47” Inscription year: 1984 (expanded in 1994) Inscription Criteria: ⅳ, ⅴ
Garrison Border Town of Elvas and its Fortifications
The site, extensively fortified from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, represents the largest bulwarked dry-ditch system in the world. Within its walls, the town contains barracks and other military buildings as well as churches and monasteries. While Elvas contains remains dating back to the tenth century AD, its fortification began when Portugal regained its independence in 1640. The fortifications designed by the Dutch Jesuit padre Cosmander represent the best surviving example of the Dutch school of fortifications anywhere. The site also contains the Amoreira aqueduct, built to enable the stronghold to withstand lengthy sieges. Criterion (ⅳ): Elvas is an outstanding example of a garrison town and its dry-ditched bulwarked defense system, which developed in response to disruptions in the balance of power within seventeenth-century Europe. Elvas can thus be seen as representing the universal aspiration for autonomy and land shared by European nation states in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Country: Portugal Location: Elvas (revised) Coordinates: N38 52 50.23, W7 9 47.96 Inscription year: 2012 Inscription Criterion: ⅳ
Old Havana and its Fortifications
Havana was founded in 1519 by the Spanish. By the seventeenth century, it had become one of the Caribbean's main centres of shipbuilding. Although it is today a sprawling metropolis of two million inhabitants, its old centre retains an interesting mix of Baroque and neoclassical monuments, and a homogeneous ensemble of private houses with arcades, balconies, wrought-iron gates and internal courtyards. Country: Cuba Location: Province of Ciudad de la Habana Coordinates: N 23° 7′ 60″, W 82° 20′ 60” Inscription year: 1982 Inscription Criteria: ⅳ, ⅴ
Namhansanseong World Heritage Center
Credits: Story

<leading fortresses of the world>
A special exhibition commemorating the 1st anniversary of the registration of Namhansanseong as a UNESCO World Heritage

Published by/ Namhansanseong World Heritage Centre
Publisher/ Jang Dae-hun
In charge of general operation/ Lee Yeong-ae
Planning by/ Lee Yeong-ae, An Jin-hui
Proceeding by/ An Jin-hui, Gong Seong-hyeon
Compilation by/ An Jin-hui; Gong Seong-hyeon
Materials provided courtesy of/ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (Original materials in English); Korean National Commission For UNESCO; Google Map
Photos provided courtesy of/ Suwon Cultural Foundation; Suwon Hwaseong Museum, Hue Monuments Conservation Center; No Hyeon-gyun, Jo Du-won, Sin Myeong-jong, Jeong Jae-hun, Kim Yeong-hak, Kim Tae-wan, Park Sang-yong, An Jin-hui, Hwang Yeon-jeong, and Lee Gyeong-mi at Namhansanseong World Heritage Centre, Gyeonggi Cultural Foundation
Project Support/ Kim Tae-yong, Choi Seo-yeon, Kim Yong-dae, Lee Hak-seong, Park So-hyun, Seong Hyung-mo, Kim Ho-gyun, Kim Kyung-min, Jo Su-jin(PR & Marketing Team, Gyeonggi Cultural Foundation)

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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