Men's Fashion in the Joseon Dynasty

Seok Juseon Memorial Museum, Dankook University

Explore the Fashion from the Celebrated Time of Korea: the Pursuit of Authority and Practicality 

Men's Fashion in the Joseon Dynasty 
In the Joseon Dynasty, men 's clothes were subject to restrictions and regulations according to strict identity system. The men of the ruling class maintained various customs according to their position or dignity. It reflects the spirit and culture of the era based on the basic composition consisting of jeogori and pants that have been worn since the previous era.

Joseon Dynasty
1392–1910

The establishment of the Joseon dynasty in 1392 fueled an extraordinary cultural renaissance. The new political vision of the state promoted Neo-Confucianism in both theoretical explorations and practical implementation in nearly every aspect of society. The Neo-Confucian royal court and elite literati (yangban), the primary patrons of the arts, embraced and encouraged the advancement of secular art and culture.

The 16th century
Based on the system and culture of the pre-era era, the clothes were very large, wide and long, as a new nation to build their own style. In particular, a wide variety of coats were worn.

Dallryung, official robe
1501 - 1600

Dallryung is the official's robe with round neck worn in Joseon dynasty. This Dallryung shows a distinctive formation of the early Joseon dynasty. It is made of cotton and single layered, and has narrow and straight collars. Originally it was pink.

Cheollik, Men's coat with pleats
1501 - 1600

Cheollik is a jacket that used to be worn as a deaily wear fr men or an official wear for military officials. It is single layerd ramie caot the upper part of this coat is shorter than the lower skirt part. It has a wide and riched skirt, has a semicircular inside patch lining on its shoulder.

Bangryeong, Jacket with squred neck
1530 - 1580

This half sleeve banryeong, was made of satin damask with small flower motif and silk tabby lining. The collar was square and the front opening met symmetrically at the center.

Aekjureum, men's coat with side pleats

Aekjureum, Men's coat with side pleats
1501-1550

Aekjureum is noble men's coat used to be worn on jacket and trousers. A double layered cotton Aekjureum coat. It is assumed that the fabric was dyed in indigo blue but much faded in the ground.

Jikryeong, Men's coat with Straight Collar
1524 - 1582

Jikryeong used to be worn as a formal wear for nobleman, or as an official wear for low rank government officers until the mid-Joseon period.

Dallryung, Official's robe
1508 - 1572

Dallryung is the official's robe and is distinguished by the pattern of Hyungbae(insignia) attached to the chest and back. This Dallryung is made of satin damask with a cloud and treasures pattern. It is single layered and the front is shorter than the back. A splendid insignia of peacock pattern made of Jikgeum-dan(satin damask woven with supplementary golden wefts) is placed on the chest. Immediately after its excavation, it was dark blue, but now it remains partially colored.

Danryeong, Official's robe

Cheollik, Men's coat with pleats
1508-1572

Cheollik is a jacket that used to be worn as a deaily wear fr men or an official wear for military officials. This Cheollick excavate from the tomb of Jeong, Eung-doo (1508~1572), a 1st class officer in the mid-Joseon period. Cheollick is constructed with gathered skirt-like underpart and top, and usually worn as a daily wear for men or as a military uniform for the officers. This single-layered Cheollick is made of silk with a cloud and treasures pattern. It has detachable sleeves for a convenience in bowing.

The 17th century
Practical changes begin to emerge after the Japanese invasion of Korea. Compared to the 16th century, it is a period of change in which the width and length are reduced and various coats appear and disappear.

Jungchimak, Men's coat
1574-1669

This coat is the early form of slitted coat, therefore the sleeves became gradually wide toward the ends like a mortar, known as Jeolgutong. It is elaborately quilted in 1.6 cm intervals to stand against cold.

Do-po, Noblemen's Coat
1581-1633

A noblemen's formal wear. This Do-po is made of a thin, coarse silk with grape pattern. The high, straight collar is cut off at the end. The sleeves are wide and long. The side panel starts from the side line and goes under the back panel, thus creating a doudble layers on the back.

Bangryeong is a long coat specifically designed for horsebackriding and for soldiers. The symmetrical squared collars the short standing sleeve, long center slit on the back and the side straps to hold the side seams are all to promote the comfortness in horse riding.

Jungchimak, Men's coat
1581-1633

The most popular men's outerwear since 17th Centtury. The straight collar and the three-panelled body with side slits are the characteristics of Durumagi. This Durumagi beloged to the general Shin, gyeong-yu. It is made of silk tabby and quilted. The left sleeve is detachable for the ease in archery.

Cheollik, Men's coat with pleats
1572-1637

This single layered coat is made of satin damask with flower-bird motif. The collar end was round, and the sleeve was narrow in armhole and wide at the end like a mortar. The waist down became longer than the waist up. compare to the early Joseon dynasty. The skirt of coat was constructed with seven panels, 59cm in loom width. The pleat width also became wider as 2.5~3cm, compare to the early Joseon dynasty. This cheollik was the general form of the mid Joseon dynasty.

The 18th century
In the stability of dynasty and society, costume culture including various coats also flourished reflecting the value of stability and practicality.

Cheollik, Men's coat with pleats
1636-1731

Cheollick is constructed with gathered skirt-like underpart and top, and usually worn as a daily wear for men or as a military uniform for the officers.
This single layered coat made of silk gauze with cloud-treasure motif. The collar end was round. It was known as durisomae which was wide sleeve. The length of waist-down was almost double size of waist-up. The skirt pleat width of coat was 1.5cm. This cheollik was the general form of the mid Joseon dynasty base on the shape of sleeve and pleats.

Dappo, Men's Coat without Sleeve
1636-1731

Dappo is a long vest/waistcoat with a long slit on the back. It used to be worn over Chang-ui or Cheollik, or uner Dallryung in the late Joseon period. The outer laer is a lotus-petterend silk and the lining is a silk tabby. The collars are narrow, blade-shaped and the breast ties are also in a long, narrow shape to match.

Dallryeong is official's robe with round neck in joseon dynasty.This double layered Dallryeong's top and under layers are both made of satin damask with cloud-treasure motif. The outer later is in the shpae of dallryung and the under layer is in the shape of jikryeong, which are roughly stitched at the seam with hiding stitches. The double-cranes insignia is sewn on the chest.

Dappo, Men's coat with short sleeve
1677 - 1746

The two coat was made of cho(thick and fine silk), delicately quilted in 0.8cm-width. The side seam was slitted. The hem was finely finished with additional straight cloth. A neckband was sewn on the square collar which was adjusted face to face in the center front. The coat were worn as an inner wear under other outfits or everyday wear to protecting themselves from cold. The way of sewing and adjusting was same except the sleeve. The one is short sleeve coat , and the other is sleeveless coat.

Sochangui, Men's coat with Side Slits
1636 - 1731

Sochang-ui is one of the outer jacket for men that was worn instead of Jeogori. It has narrow sleeves and side slits, and smaller and shorter and size and length than Po types. This Sochang-ui is made of silk tabby with plum blossoms(梅花) and a butterfly patterns, and lined with silk tabby. This is a practical clothes convenient for activities.

It shows a distinctive form of Sochang-ui, completed with the neckband and breast ties. The size of armholes is little wider than the end of sleeve and the length of coat and sleeves are almost the same.

Jobok, Official's ceremonial attire
1677-1746

It was a complete set of an official court outfit includes red silk coat(jeokchoui), decorative skirt,(sang) front adornment(pyeseul), woven back adornment(husu) and belt(dae). The decorative skirt and front adornment were made of sa(silk gauze) without motif. The robe was double layered, outer layer was made of satin damask with cloud-treasure motif and lined with silk tabby. The belt was made of satin damask with motives(lychee, Buddhist hand, pomegranate, etc.) The woven back adornment was made of velvet with two twin cranes motif.

Dallryung, Official's robe
1677-1746

Government official's robe. This is excavated from Lee, Jik, the lord Milchang, the great-grandson of the lord Inseong, the 7th sond of King SeonJo--the 14th king of Joseon Dynasty. The outer and inner layers are both made of clowd-patterend silk. There are two 38x39 cm sized clowd and crane insignia patched on the chest and the back. The side panel is connected to the back body panel with buttons.

Shimui Reproduction

This single layered shim-ui, made of satin, was the first outfit among the clothing that the dead wore as a cerements. The skirt of the coat was constructed with twelve panels. The half width of sleeve was same as the length of waist-up. The double layered breast ties were sewn in between the bodice and the skirt in the front. The front opening, the hem, the sleeve end, and the fabric belt was trimmed with black material. The waist was wrapped around with a fabric belt and tied in a knot. Then a braided narrow belt was hooked on top and hung down parallel. Although the belt color was faded, we can find the many color thread was used to braid the belt.

Bangryeong, Men's coat
1636-1731

Bangryeong is jacker for military man that has worn on jeogori and pant. It based on the symmetric collar and front opening, narrow sleeve, back center slit. It was double layered and made of silk tabby in and out.

Since the 19th century 
With the introduction of Western culture and the political and economic upheaval, clothing has become simplified and more practical. With the beginning of the 20th century, traditional and Western suits were worn together.

Dallryung, Official's robe
1800s

Dallryung left by Shin Taekwan, this double layered robe is made of Eunjosa (silk, simple gauze) in green color. There are single crane Hyungbae sewn on the breast and the back.

Baeja, King Gojong’s Vest
1864 - 1907

A double layered Baeja worn by Emperor Gojong.It is a daily wear for the winter season. It is made of Yeongchodan(thick and fine silk with patterns) with green cotton flannel linings and trimmings in black all around the seams. The length of the vest is shorter in the front and longer in the back. The side seam are completely open. Baeja in general has ties sewn on the side of front panel and the loop sewn on the side of back panel in general, but ties are missing in this one.

Jobok, Official's Ceremonial Attire
19th century

Yun Yonggu‘s Cheollik, Men's coat with pleats 1801 - 1900

A single layerd Cheollick worn by Yoon, Yong-gu, an adopted son of Princess Deok-on, made of blue Sah(silk gauze) with a cloud-treasures pattern. The collar end is smooth and round, the length of the top is relatively short and wide. The left sleeve is detachable and adjustable with knotted buttons The length of waist-up is only about 1/3 of the length of waist-down, and it is the shortest during the Joseon dynasty. It might have been influenced by fashion of Jeogori(jacket) length, which became shorter in that period.

Hakchangui, Confucian Scolar's Robe
19th century

Hakchangui is an everyday clothes for a senior scholar or a nobleman.

Magoja, Over jacket for Men
1853-1936

Jebok, King and Official’s Ceremonial Attire
Early 20th century

Nubi-Jeogori, King Gojong’s quilted Jacket
1864 - 1907

This quilted Jeogori was worn by Emperor Gojong as a daily wear. It is made of Suk-sa(degummed silk) gauze in burgundy and lined with white silk. It is padded with cotton batting and elaborately quilted in 0.3cm width.

Jungchimak, Boy’s Coat
19th century

A boys’ single layer Jungchimak coat with wide sleeves and side slits. It is made of blue ramie cloth. It has wide sleeves and its sagging part is almost straight. This shows a distinctive form of Jungchimak in the late Joseon period.

Heungseondaewon-gun‘s Dallryeong, Official`s robe 1800s

Dallryung left by Emperor Gojong's father, Lee, Ha-eung. This double layered robe is made of Bonsa (silk, simple gauze) in burgundy color and lined with red silk fabric. There are four breast ties, two in burgundy for the top layer, and two in red for the under layer. There are two Girin(麒麟, Qilin)- Hyungbae(insignia of imaginary animal , 17.5 × 19cm) sewn on the breast and the back.

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Organized by Seok Juseon Memorial Museum, Dankook University

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