Women's participation in Brazilian football
MARTA (Dois Riachos, AL, 1986)
With a powerfull left strike and enviable spped, Marta's skill has made her the only elected player elected as World's Best by FIFA for five times in a row, and the greatest striker in Brazilian Team's history scoring 101 goals in 2015 - a deed unmatched by men or women. The only honored woman at Maracanã sidewalk of fame has opened way to the visibilityof women's football in 21th Century.
FORMIGA (Salvador, BA, 1978)
Playing for over 20 years in Brazilian National Team, Formiga is the most summoned athelet. she is also the only player in the world to participate in six World Cups and six Olympic Games. With quick precise services, good dismantles and an outstanding game vision, the wing player played for Malmo FF Dam (Sweden), Santos, São Paulo, Paris Saint German (France) and São José (SP), where she won three Copa CONMEBOL Libertadores and a FIFA Club World Cup. Together with MArta, she got a silver medal in Athens (2004) and Beijing (2008), and gold in the Pan-Americans of 2003, 2007 and 2015,
ACT 3199, from April 14 1941
Set the ground for organizing Brazilian sports
The President of the Republic, using the rights assured by the Federal Constitution article 180,
CHAPTER IX: GENERAL AND TRANSITORY DISPOSITIONS
Art. 54 The women will not be allowed to play sports that are incompatible to the conditions of their nature, being the National Sports Council responsible to establish the necessary instructions to the sport entities in Brazil.
A citizen's letter to president Getúlio Vargas
[I came] to ask the clairvoyant attention of Your Honor to adjure a calamity that is coming to colapse upon the female youth in Brazil. I refer, mr. President, to the enthusiastic movement that is exhilarating hundreds of girls, atracting them to become football players regardless the fact that women cannot play this violent sport without seriously affecting the physiologial balance of their organic functions, due to the nature that compels them to be mothers... The papers informs us that in Rio there are at least ten female teams. In São Paulo and Belo Horizonte others are being gathered. At this pace, within a year it is probable that all over the country there will be like 200 female football clubs, meaning: 200 destroyers of the health of 2200 future mothers that, besides that, will be trapped in a depressive mentality, subjected to rude and flamboyant exhibitionism.
"surely no one would demand that women would play football or rugby, or punch antagonists with box gloves, or throw iron bars, or grapple in roman wrestling. There are exercises that are not proper and would be harmfull to women, not only to their beauty but to their health, and would be ridiculous".
Novelist Coelho Neto, known as a football suporter, 1926.
Educação Physica magazine, 1937.
Outskirt female tems from Rio de Janeiro, such as Casino Realengo, S. C. Brasileiro, S. C. Bemfica, Eva F. C. and Primavera A. C. were the pioneers facing and exposing this practice to the public. They were invited to abroad matches and carried out a foreplay match in a C. R. Flamengo and São Paulo F. C. match, in the opening of the field lights of Pacaembu Stadium, in may 1940.
What do we know of female championships?
The first female world champioship took place in Italy in 1970. The contest was not supported by FIFA and, because of that, was almost wiped of history.
the Federation of Independent European Female Football (FIEFF) sponsored the tournment. Austria, Denmark, England, Germany, Italy, Mexico and Switzerland took part in the opening event.
Denmark beated Italy at the finals in Turim for 2x0 and almost 50 thousand suporters witnessed the match.
Next year, the second edition of this World Championship was carried out in Mexico - a year after theBrazilian male team became world champion for the third time at the same field -over a 100 thousand supporters followed the danish conquest against the mexicans (3x0).
The Mexican Football Federation tried to stop the female players in their fields. The problem was dismissed when two private stadiums authorized their use and opened their doors for the tournment: Jalisco and Azteca.
Brazil and Argentina were invited. While the hermanas took part, here.... we did not even answered the invitation!
ARAGUARI ATLÉTICO CLUBE
The Araguari Atlético Clube tem, from Araguari, a city 585km distant from Belo Horizonte (MG), was portraied in the widely known O Cruzeiro magazine in 28 February 1959. The story called "GLAMOUR" WEAR CLEATS called the national attention as it revealed one of the rare football clubs with female participation that publicly presented itself in a period when women were unadvised - if not to say forbidden - to play football.
Araguari arised when the Grupo Escolar Visconde de Ouro Preto board has proposed to the club a charity match against the athletes of their biggest rival, the Fluminense Futebol Clube, aiming to get funds to the school.
"(...) Women has more fragile bones, less muscles mass, ubiquous pelvic girdle, larger and so less resistent body, lower center of gravity, smaller heart, less red blood cells count, breathing less appropriate to heavy sports, less nervous resistance and organic adaptation"
Folha de São Paulo July 16 1961.
Eleuza, goalkeeper from Araguari.
Perhaps due to their naivety, Araguari players and board wish to professionalize the modality. They had promoted friendly matches among other teams that were also clandestine and had some press coverage.
The boldness of those women resulted in an early ending of the team's history. Some say that it was due to the pressure of the local church, others say it was a recommendation of the Brazilian Sports Confederation.
Other important names in the history of the radio were Germana Garlilli, reporter and commentator; field reporter; Claudete Troiano, Jurema Yara and Leilah Silveira, both commentators; and Léa Campos. The former referee was responsible to analyze the referee performance during the matches.
Germana beside Jairzinho.
Radio Mulher reached greater audiences, specially male listeners. Keeping it in minds and aiming for more audience, Roberto Montoro, in the words of Zuleide, "married" the radio, inviting men to join the team.
Semiramis Alves' field reporter credentials during the perioed she worked for TV Tupi.
Rose won this nickname after being involved in an important episode that made history in the modality, in a period that the prohibition act was already cancelled, but women continued to be boycott in field, due to the lack of regulation.
In September 1982, São Paulo hosted the National Festival of Women in Art, organized by Ruth Escobar. Ruth, actress and cultural producer, organized the festival sith the support of the Revista Nova.
It was doubtless a great sample of female artistic production in a wide range of acting fields.
In the ending day of the festival, two teams were assembled, one from Rio de Janeiro and one from São Paulo, to play in the lawn of Morumbi Stadium.
The organization of the event received a Restraining Order and was able to work around it by calling the match a foreplay "spectacle", previous to the match between São Paulo and Corinthians. The match duration was shortened - twenty minutes each half - as to decharacterize it as an authentic match.
Initial kick from Ruth Escobar during the match between women played at Morumbi, 1982.
68 thousand supporters came to the stadium, and at the same time a telegram from the São Paulo Football Federation forbidding the match. According to Rose do Rio's testimony, the male players were supportive of the match, and Sócrates one of the leaders of Corinthians Democracy, said it out loud:
"The public is here to see the female game. They are not here to see Corinthians and São Paulo. So, if they cannot play, we won't play either!".
When CND regulated the practice, in 1983 , the rules of the modality set the duration of the match in 70 minutes, with 15-20 minutes of break; the ball's size was 62-66 centimeters and maximum weight of 390 grammes; the players must use cleats withous metal or pointed studs; and they cannot exchange shirts with the oponents after a match.
This last rule is due the episode occured at Morumbi, when Ruth Escobar exchanged her shirt with a player from São Paulo team.
The only commercial sponsor of the event, the candy factory Mars, took the lead and assigned the tournment the name M&M's Cup. After considering the tournment a success, FIFA renamed the event retroactively as "Female Football World Cup".
Despite having the same name, female World Cup would still struglle for years to assure the basic infrastructure to carry on the championship every four years.
Broadcasting, sponsorship, fields, calendar, public are challenging topics for organizers and, as such, for participating teams.
Body and movement are the main features of the football game. A beautifull play, a gourgeous strike, an unforgetable goal... all executed by the feet of football players. A sport trajectory that was presented as a circus act, a vedettes' match, charity events, enduring years of prohibition and a lot of resistence.
So, it was important to share the curatorship of this exhibition with the protagonists of this history, athletes, referees and journalists, that had pointed siginificant images of their carrers.
This doorway allowed us to know and scan their personal collections and, thus, made them available at the project Visibility to Female Football.
Exhibition Visibility to the Female Football
Original Version - 2015
Curatorship and texts| Female Football Work Group: Suzana Cardoso, Diego Sales, José Rodrigues Neto, Laís de Oliveira Araújo, Tatiane de Oliveira, Daniel Magnanelli, Aira Bonfim, Camila Aderaldo, Julia Terin e Pedro Sant'Anna
Research | Aira Bonfim, Camila Aderaldo e Suzana Cardoso.
Google Edtion | Aira Bonfim, Julia Terin, Pedro Sant'Anna e Camila Aderaldo
Text Revision | Daniela Alfonsi e Camila Aderaldo
Video Edition | Aira Bonfim
Participant Educators | Bruna Colluci, Claudia Stocco, Ingrid Ricetto, Leonardo Catella
Reviewed Version - 2018
Coordination | Camila Aderaldo e Aira Bonfim
Adaptation, google edition and translation | Ana Letícia de Fiori