The painting collection comprises over 700 objects from 16th century until present. The most numerous group consists of the 19th and 20th century paintings, in particular, the works created by the Polish painters in Munich: Józef Brandt, Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski, Józef Chełmoński, Leon Wyczółkowski, Julian Fałat, Wojciech Kossak, Teodor Axentowicz, or Zofia Stryjeńska. Moreover, the collection includes the works of painters who trained in Paris: Olga Boznańska, Józef Czapski, Vlastimil Hofman. An important part of the contemporary art collection are the 75 paintings by Hanna Kala Weynerowska from San Francisco, which were presented to the Museum by the painter herself.
Specially worthy of notice is the collection of 108 miniature paintings from the Dzików Castle, dating from the 18th and 19th centuries. The collection was a gift of Count Artur Tarnowski. It features mainly the works of Polish miniaturists, such as Wincenty Lesseur, a miniature painter at the court of King Stanisław August Poniatowski, and Waleria Tarnowska, but also the pieces by F.G. Remondini and H.F. Füger. The collection contains portraits of historical figures, and miniature copies of masterpieces of European painting.
The majority of works came to the Museum as gifts from the Polish expat community. The Museum received paintings from, among others, Julian Godlewski, Iza Landsberger-Poznańska, Count Artur Tarnowski, Czesław Marek, Grażyna Zawisza, and Hanna Kali Weynerowska.