The History of the Creation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia

Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies

Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies, Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary

Message of the All-Diaspora Council of the Russian Orthodox Church to the children of the Russian Orthodox Church, scattered and exiled (17/30 November 1921, Sremski Karlovci, Serbia).
Double-Headed eagle journal (Berlin, 1921) No.22 of 15/28 December). Pages 7–8
object-4
The library of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies
“Praying for the remission of sins, asking for light in the paths of the future, let everyone accept the burden of his brother, so that united with faith and love we walk into our home when the Lord opens the doors for us, as a single flock of a single Shepherd, with a selfless readiness to serve the dear land and goodness of people.”

Exodus

Mass emigration from Russia followed the 1917 revolution and the Civil War. Millions of Russian refugees found themselves abroad. More than 150,000 people left Russia by sea from Crimea.

The last order by General Wrangel, the Governor of the South of Russia and Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army. Sevastopol, 29 October/11 November 1920. From the book “The final days of Crimea” (Constantinople, 1920, Pages 31–31).The library of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies.“Russian people! The Russian Army, left alone to resist the violators, is fighting a losing battle to protect the last piece of Russian land that has retained law and the truth… Our further paths are uncertain. Let the Lord send us all power and reason to bear and survive Russia’s troubled years. General WRANGEL.”

By the end of 1920, more than 120 ships with refugees, including members of the clergy, had arrived and concentrated in the Bosporus, Constantinople, under the lead of Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel.

Commander of the I Army Corps of the Russian Army General A. P. Kutepov amidst Russian soldiers evacuated from Crimea. Gallipoli (Gelibolu, Turkey), 1921. Archives of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies

Badge “Gallipoli 1920–1921” commemorating the stay of the Russian Army in military camps abroad, and Certificate No. 15357 issued to Captain A. F. Udovitsky. Gallipoli (Gelibolu, Turkey), 15 November 1921.
Lead and tin alloy, paint. Handmade. 32.5 x 32.5 cm.
The Museum collection of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies.
Donated by N. P. Davydova.


Because of severe persecution of the clergy starting from the first days of the Bolshevik regime, a considerable part of the clergy had to leave Russia.
Black Book: (“Storm of Heaven”): A compilation of documents characterizing the combat of the Soviet Communist authorities against any religion, against all confessions and churches / Compiled by A. A. Valentinov. Opening remarks by Peter Struve. Paris. Published by the Russian National Student Association, 1925. 295 pages, illustrations, (cover)
Paris, 1925.
The library of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies

Poltava. The bodies of the monks of Lubensk Savior Transfiguration Monastery shot by the Bolsheviks on 6 August 1919. Photograph from the book “Black Book. (Storm of Heaven)”, p. 45
Black Book, p. 45.
The library of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies

Kiev. The altar at the family chapel of the Governor-General of Kiev desecrated by the Bolsheviks. Photograph from the book “Black Book. (Storm of Heaven)”, p. 50
The library of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies

The Russian Orthodox Church in exile had to self-actualize itself anew and reinterpret is universal mission.

On the other hand, it was necessary to unite the congregation scattered around the globe as soon as possible.

In 1920, the Higher Church Administration Abroad became operational in Constantinople. It was headed by one of the oldest and most reputable hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church, Antony (Khrapovitsky), Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia (1863–1936)

Sremski Karlovci, Serbia
In 1921, the Higher Church Administration Abroad moved to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

In the spring of 1922, General Wrangel and the Russian Army Headquarters moved to Sremski Karlovci.

Order-in-Chief of the Russian army №243

Its activity was blessed by the Council of Bishops of the Serbian Church.

On 21 November 1921, the All-Diaspora Council of bishops, clerics, and lay people of the Russian Orthodox Church was held to determine the canonical status and further fate of many Russian parishes abroad.

Since 1922, the parishes of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia were subordinate to the Synod of Bishops, which was headquartered in Sremski Karlovci. Antony (Khrapovitsky), Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia, headed the Synod until 1936.

The Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia maintained contacts with representatives of the Imperial House of Romanov in exile. Archives of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies keep the correspondence between the chancery of the Synod of Bishops with Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich and head of his chancery Duke N. L. Obolensky.

“Opinions of all Archbishops of the Russian Orthodox Church outside Russia must be requested urgently concerning possible and necessary arrangements of church life in connection with the demise of the Holiest Patriarch Tikhon in the event the Soviet authorities create obstacles to the management of the church by Patriarchal Locum Tenens and election of a new Patriarch…”

“…Can we ever embrace the evil that the Soviet power has done during its decade-long rule of the Russian land? Only recently has Deputy Patriarchal Locum Tenens Metropolitan Sergius called for our loyalty to the Soviet power. We responded in accordance with our bishopric fairness. We rejected those appeals with no hesitation. There was no other way for us to do it…”

On 6 April 1930, Most Holy Patriarch of Serbia Dimitrije demised — in 1921, he had shared his residence with the Russian bishops.

Patriarch Varnava, who took over Dimitrije and the episcopate of the Serbian Church, continued supporting the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia and maintained communication of prayers with the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.

Sremski Karlovci played a crucial role in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. It hosted annual Councils of Bishops, published encyclicals and printed church literature.

Church bulletin published at the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia with the publication of the Instruction by Metropolitan Antony and Decrees of the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. Sremski Karlovci, 1928, No.11-12 (150-151), 1 (14) – 15 (28) June.
Archives of Solzhenitsyn Centre of Russian Emigré Studies.

The conference of Russian bishops abroad under the chairmanship of Patriarch of Serbia Varnava in Sremski Karlovci, which elaborated the “Temporary Provision on the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia”. October 1935.
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY. U.S.A.
F СТС/М
Lower row, left to right: Metropolitans Theophilus (Pashkovsky) and Eulogius (Georgievsky), Patriarch Varnava (Rosic), Metropolitan Anastasy (Gribanovsky), Bishop Dimitry (Voznesensky).

After all theological schools were eliminated in Russia and the history of theology broke down, one of its areas associated with the preservation of the purity of the patristical tradition, continued to be developed in Serbia, which warmly welcomed many prominent Russian theologians and nurtured many members of the clergy, who made a significant contribution to the post-war history of the Russian Church in the Diaspora.

The Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia was involved in organizational and missionary activities. Church life was actively developing: churches were built, new parishes were established, church and liturgic books were printed, councils of bishops were held, and members of the clergy were ordained.

On 24 December 1924, Metropolitan Antony
Serbian Patriarch Dimitrije founded a stone church in Belgrade in the name of Holy trinity. The church was consecrated on 5 July 1925. Odigitria of Russian Dispersion — the miracle-working Kursk Root Icon of the Mother of God of the Sign, had stayed in the church until 1944.

Collection of Works in Memory of the Holy Great Prince Vladimir, Equal of the Apostles

The Second All-Diaspora Council of the Russian Orthodox Church attended by the clergy and laymen was held in 1938

Second World War and Second Wage of Emigration

In 1943, the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, whose status became increasingly controversial and vulnerable, moved from Sremski Karlovci to Belgrade, and in September 1944, shortly before the coming of the Red Army, members and employees of the Synod together with then head of the Synod, Metropolitan Anastasy (Gribanovsky), left Serbia.

Archimandrite Averky (Taushev) (1906-1976) at synodal family church of Equal-to-the-Apostles Holy Great Prince Vladimir. To the left is the kiot with the Miracle-Working Kursk Root Icon of the Mother of God of the Sign. 18 January 1950
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY. U.S.A.

Consecration by Metropolitan Anastasy of a monument on the grave of Suvorov soldiers erected in Germany by the Committee of Russian Refugees (Morozov, Kromiadi, Makedonov, Mesnyaev), 1948.
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY, U.S.A.
Inscription on the reverse: “Weingarten, Lindau am Bodensee, Deutschland.”

Jordanville, NY, U.S.A.

The “Serbian trace” of the ROCOR goes through Switzerland and Germany to the United States. In 1946, a group of typographic brotherhood of Saint Job of Pochaev led by Bishop Seraphim came on a visit from Ladomirova (Slovakia) to the little-known Holy Trinity Monastery in Jordanville, U.S.A. at the invitation of Archbishop of Canada and North America Vitaly (Maximenko).

Archbishop Vitaly (secular name Vasily Ivanovich Maximenko, 1873–1960)
Synodal Cathedral of the Sign in New York. 1951-1957.

Whit Monday at the Holy Trinity Monastery, Jordanville, U.S.A. 13 June 1949.
Left to right: bishop Seraphim (Ivanov), monk (later archimandrite) Flor (Vanko), archbishop Vitaly (Maximenko), monk (later archbishop) Alipy (Gamanovich).
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY, U.S.A.

The Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia led by Metropolitan Anastasy moved to New York together with the Miracle-Working Icon of the Mother of God of the Sign.

Holy Trinity Church, Holy Trinity Monastery. Jordanville, U.S.A., 6 April 1951
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY, U.S.A.

Holy Trinity Monastery. Jordanville, U.S.A., August 1953
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY, U.S.A.

Holy Trinity Monastery. Jordanville, U.S.A., winter 1956
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY, U.S.A.

The continuity of the spiritual tradition, which spanned three epochs of Russian church history, determined the concept of the exhibition “The History of the Creation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia,” featuring photographs and documents that tell the story of the history of ROCOR, prominent hierarchs and ROCOR’s relationship with the outside world.

The Third All-Diaspora Council of the Russian Orthodox Church. Holy Trinity Monastery, Jordanville, U.S.A. 25 August / 7 September – 9/22 September 1974.
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY, U.S.A.

Holy Trinity Monastery. Jordanville, U.S.A., after 1988.
Foundation of Russian History. Archives of Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary. Jordanville, NY, U.S.A.

In May 2012, The exhibition “The History of the Creation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia” took place in Serbia - in the country that adopt in difficult time and maintain a significant part of the spiritual heritage of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Credits: Story

The exhibition “The History of the Creation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia” was organized at the Solzhenitsyn House for the Russian Diaspora from 4 to 28 February 2014.
http://www.domrz.ru/?id=986&mod=static

The exhibition was prepared by:
Curators – Father Vladimir von Tsurikov, member of the Council of Directors of the Holy Trinity Seminary, director of the Fund of Russian History;

deputy director of the Solzhenitsyn House for the Russian Diaspora Inna Yevgenyevna Rozanova;

Project coordinator – Tatiana Yuryevna Irinarkhova;

Artist – Yelena Valeryevna Abarenkova.

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions (listed below) who have supplied the content.
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