The Costume, the Pattern of Joseon Dynasty: Men and Women’s Vest, Baeja

Gyeonggi Provincial Museum

The beauty of Korean clothing

Introduction

On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of Gyeonggi Provincial Museum, we came up with the special exhibition “The Costume, the Pattern of Joseon Dynasty”. The exhibition, named after the costume and design of the Joseon Dynasty.

“The Costume” consists of five parts: part one is ‘Officials' Ceremonial Attire, Red Jobok’, part two is ‘Officials' Uniform, Black Dallyeong’, part three is ‘Confucian Scholars’ Ceremonial Robe, White Sim-ui’, part four is ‘Women’s Ceremonial Robe, Green Wonsam’, and the last part shows ‘Men and Women’s Vest, Baeja’. And also, discolored costumes from the original attire were splendidly recreated by Korean costume professionals. In “The Pattern”, one of the relics in the Gyeonggi Provincial Museum, displays the various and distinctive patterns of Joseon Dynasty, through which our ancestors pursued beauty and their desires to express due courtesy with full dress code including a variety of designs.

We sincerely hope that you can feel and appreciate the beauty of Korean clothing in a new light.

5. Men’s and Women’s Vest, Baeja
Baeja  was a vest worn over jackets, and was worn by both men and women. It was also called Deung-geo-ri or Bae-geo-ri. Most Baeja had center-front opening, and its opening was buttoned or tied with straps.Gyeonggi Provincial museum possesses various types of vests: long ones, short ones, and ones with their back shorter than front, etc. Women’s vest was shorter and smaller than the men’s. This was because the length and size of women’s Jeogori had changed: women’s Jeogori became shorter and smaller, whereas men’s Jeogori did not change. There were a lot of excavated vests which were quilted with cotton batting or padded with thick cotton. Therefore, those Baejas were presumed to be an outer clothing for the winter.Since Baeja was not formal clothing, people could design it as they wanted. As a result, Baeja was diverse in shape and showed its practicality and grace as an attire.

It is worn by fastening under the sholder and armhole with a button knot, which has a different method of fastening from other Baeja. It has a long front and short back with the front being 21cm longer than the back, the outer fabric used Cho made from fine quality silk threads, the inner fabric used silk, and has a thick sheet of Hanji inserted in between. It has no collar, and an inner hem was attached to the Godae, the back part of the neck. At the time of excavation, it was used as a pillow after being folded several times.

It is a Baeja made from peony-patterned silk, and all of the inner fabric is lost. The front and back have the same length, and the collar is a rectangular Bangryeong, being a double collar, having a seam in the middle of the collar, with a Dongjeong. The left and right collar heads meet at the front center without overlapping parts, and it does not have a gusset. There are 2 pairs of button knots for fastening, and the entire sideline is open, with the front and back piece being connected with two strings under the armhole.

It is a Baeja made from silk with cloud, peach, and 卍 shaped patterns. It is a practical vest for warming the back, and is worn by intersecting the 2 strings hanging on the front. It is made of thick cotton, and the cotton was fastened by double-stitching the edges of the Baeja. The string was eliminated, but the mark of a string attached to the two threads of the front piece and the mark of a loop attached under the armhole still remain. The Baeja of Tamreunggun Lee Byun 1636~1731 owned by Dankook University Seok Ju-seon Memorial Museum has the same shape, and has the two threads hanging on the front for a string to be attached and hooked on the sideline loop to be tied.

It is a quilted Baeja made from silk, it was quilted in a 0.8cm interval, and the front is 8cm longer than the back. The collar is a rectangular Bangryeong, has a seam in the middle of the collar, and is a Daegeum shape where both collars meet at the front center without overlapping parts. It is fastened with 3 pairs of button knots, and there is a button knot 37cm down from the shoulder of the sideline, connecting the front and back piece.

It is a cotton Baeja made from darkish blue silk, and has a long front and short back with the front being 17cm longer than the back. The collar is a rectangular Bangryeong, and it is a double collar with a seam in the middle of the collar. It is a Daegeum shape with the left and right collars meeting at the front center without overlapping parts, and has no gusset. There is a button knot on the collar and below at a 14cm, 15cm interval to be fastened from the front, and the entire sideline is open with a button knot under the armhole to connect the front and back piece.

The collar is symmetrical with a round collar head, is a Daegeum shape meeting at the front center without overlapping parts, and has a Dongjeong. The front and back piece have the same length, and is quilted at a 1.1~1.2cm interval. It is diagonal from the shoulder line to under the armhole, and there is a trace of a string attached under the armhole. There is a trace of a button knot attached to the front center collar head and at the point 15cm below, but it has been eliminated.

It is a quilted Baeja with outer and inner fabrics made from silk, and was finely quilted at a 1cm interval. The collar head is a triangle, and has a Dongjeong. The left and right collar heads meet at the front center without overlapping parts, but the lower part of the collar has a gusset attached on the left and right front piece to be overlapped. Seeing from the fact that it was fastened with a button knot at the collar head and at a point 13cm, 24.5cm below the collar head, it is presumed to have been worn in a Daegeum shape without overlapping parts on the front. The armhole line is a curve just like modern clothes' armhole circumference, and there is an opening 23.5cm below the armhole.

The collar is symmetrical, the collar head is round, and it meets at the front center without overlapping parts, and has a Dongjeong attached on the collar. The front and back piece have the same length, and is finely quilted at a 0.5cm interval. The left and right sidelines are open, and there are 2 strings attached under the armhole to connect the front and back of the Baeja. There is a string mark on the sides of the front piece middle line at a regular interval, and the fastening has been eliminated. There is an inner hem at a 0.8cm interval on the edges of the gusset, trim, and sidelines of the inner fabric.

It is made from silk with various flower patterns on a continuous 卍-patterned background, and is quilted at a 0.8cm interval. The collar is a rectangular Bangryeong, has a Dongjeong, and has 3 pairs of button knots at the front center, but one side has been lost. There is a 50cm long side opening 16cm apart from the armhole.

It is a Baeja with the outer fabric made from large cloud-patterned silk, and the hem of the edges made from small cloud-patterned silk. The collar is a rectangular shape, and the part 12.5cm below the armhole was overcast to connect the front and back piece, and the part below is open.

It is a Baeja made from apricot flower and peony-patterned silk, with the collar being a rectangular Bangryeong, a double collar with a seam on the middle of the collar, and a Dongjeong. The left and right collar heads meet at the front center without overlapping parts, but the lower part of the collar has a gusset on the front piece on the left and right, overlapping. There is a trace of a string on the collar of the left and right front piece and the part 26cm below, has traces of fastening, and it is thought that it would have been worn without overlapping parts. The armhole is a curve, there is an opening 23cm below the armhole, and the uppermost part of the opening was cross-stitched.

It is a Baeja made from blue bat-patterned silk. It has a symmetrical round collar, has no overlapping parts on the front center, has a short front piece, and has a curved armhole, which is the typical form of the Baeja worn by men during late Joseon Dynasty.

Gyeonggi Provincial Museum
Credits: Story

Director : Jun, Bo Sam
Exhibition planning : Kim, Joon Kwon / Jeong, Mi Sook
Exhibition Support : Lee, Sung Jun / Hur, Mee Hyung / Lee, Ji Hee / Jo, Hyun Yi /
Lee, Young Eun / Jeon, Ik Whan / Heo, Jung Ae / Sim, Kyeong Bo / Lee, Suck Ju / Pak, Young Hee / Choi, Yong Hak / Kim, Choong Sun

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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