Paintings of the Porcelain Production Process in the Qing Dynasty 

Series of paintings about porcelain production for export           外銷的製瓷連環圖
This series of 34 watercolour paintings is a unique documentation of the production of Jingdezhen porcelain in the 18th century. The series was intended for the Western market, and was in the tradition of export paintings used to explain and illustrate Chinese culture to the West. The current set of trade paintings is characterised by its illustration of: the division of labour, the logistics of transporting the porcelain for both imperial and export commissions, and the foreign merchants in Canton (now Guangzhou). These kinds of work were produced at painting studios in Canton and later in Hong Kong, where an export market for Chinese decorative arts thrived. 本組34幅製瓷連環圖,以水彩繪成,為十八世紀清代景德鎮製瓷工序的難得紀錄。這類畫專為外銷西方市場,一貫形象化地說明中國文化的各種面貌。   各圖詳細顯示陶匠分工、官窰及外銷瓷器的製運,以及廣州夷商的活動。中國外銷畫起源於廣州的畫室,當地外國商人(夷商)雲集,形成中國工藝品活躍的交易市場,隨後外銷畫畫室亦於香港興起。
Making Porcelain in Jingdezhen 景德鎮製瓷業
The availability of raw materials, such as porcelain stone, kaolin clay and wood, as well as access to water for the transport of raw materials and finished products, were vital to the development of the porcelain industry in Jingdezhen.                              景德鎮地理位置優越,四通八達的水道配合船運系統,有利運輸瓷石、高嶺土、木材等原料,以及瓷器成品,大大促進當地製瓷業發展。
Porcelain in the time of the Canton Trade             廣州貿易時期的瓷器
The ancient art of Chinese porcelain making stretches as far back as the 7th or 8th century. It has developed and evolved into various forms through the years, yet its fundamental qualities remain distinct. It differs from other ceramics due to its tough, smooth, white, shiny, translucent and resonant qualities. Starting in the 16th century, the export of large quantities of porcelain to the West meant that it became more widely known. This, in turn, dramatically increased the market for porcelain and provided a new type of consumer for the Chinese porcelain maker, one who responded to changes in taste. At the same time, the elegance and durability of Chinese porcelain stimulated Western countries to develop their own ceramic industries and sparked industrial innovation.                                中國古代製瓷工藝最早可追溯至唐代。經年累月,製瓷技術已達爐火純青,並衍生出各式名窰佳器。瓷器堅硬、細密、雪白、光亮、敲聲清脆,已成為廣受歡迎的器物。   自明代十六世紀起中國瓷器大量出口西方,而廣泛知名。隨著外銷市場的擴大,中國瓷匠靈活變通,擅於生產迎合西方品味的瓷品。歐洲社會對典雅耐用的中國瓷器趨之若鶩,遂渴求發展陶瓷業,並掀起工業革新。

The 'Trading China' exhibition held in Pacific Basin Shipping Gallery, Hong Kong Maritime Museum.
在香港海事博物館太平洋航運展廳舉行的「陶冶之路——清代瓷器製運圖」展覽。

A porcelain commission is brought to Raozhou
「饒州」,描繪官員乘船沿昌江抵達景德鎮。

Mining the clay and carrying it down the mountain
「鑿土」,描繪工人在山中鑿採瓷石

Crushing the clay with a water wheel
「樁土」,工人利用水輪車,藉流水推動水碓,將採石粉碎、淘洗

Buffalo trampling the clay
「踏土」,水牛來回踩踏泥池,混和泥與水,使之成漿

Sieving the clay
「篩土」,備用的泥漿送到作坊過篩

Moulding the clay into bricks
「印土」,窰棚工人模印泥磚

Transporting clay bricks
「賣土」,泥磚裝船運往景德鎮

Shaping the pot on a wheel
「車胎」,圖中拉坯工正利用輪車塑造盤、碗、杯、碟等圓器

Perfecting the shape
「修胎」,棚內修坯匠用輪車以小刀修削器表

Glazing
「盪(金右)」,彩瓷或白瓷上釉

Cutting firewood for the kilns
「据柴」,柴工帶著斧鋸伐柴,為燒製瓷器作準備

Filling the kiln
「裝窰」,瓷坯放進匣鉢後裝窰

Lighting the kiln
「燒窰」,瓷坯滿窰後,點火始燒,窰口封閉

Removing the porcelain from the kiln
「出窰」,經過三天時間,窰匠入窰取出燒成的瓷器

A Chinese merchant travels to Jingdezhen
「出裝」,粵商帶備行裝、盛禮,前赴景德鎮訂購瓷器

A porcelain dealer greets a customer
「投行」,粵商到景德鎮拜會當地牙行瓷商

A porcelain dealer’s banquet
「請酒」,行商設宴招待粵商

Fixing the price of the wares
「定貨」,粵商向景德鎮牙行商人訂貨

Decorating the wares in enamel colours
「鬦彩」,白瓷會由畫功超卓的工匠用西畫手法繪彩,即成彩瓷

Inspecting wares in an open stove
「明爐」,白瓷塗釉上彩經第二次低溫窰燒以穩定器表的顏色

Making barrels in which to transport the porcelain
「箍桶」,工人製造木桶以包裝瓷器

Wrapping bowls in woven straw
「交艸」,樂師正演奏娛樂茭草匠工作

Packing the wares in barrels
「裝桶」,每年秋冬兩季僱用船隻挑夫解運北京或運往廣州

Crossing the Poyang Lake
「過灘」,瓷器正渡過鄱陽湖,隨後會轉入贛江到達南昌府

Descending from the mountain pass
「過嶺」,挑夫擔運裝桶的彩瓷及草紮的白瓷,翻過梅嶺,將抵達廣東南雄府

Westerners rowing up from Whampoa to Canton, for the cargo
「歸裝」,到達黃埔江的貨船,可能準備繳付關稅

Painting wares for export in a variety of colours
「法瑯」︰白瓷運到廣州後,可在作坊加工釉上彩

Refiring in a closed stove
「暗爐」,釉上彩瓷放進封閉的雙層爐壁燒製

European merchants at a porcelain shop
「開舖」,圖中歐洲商人手持兩袋貨幣到中國瓷商購貨

Offerings to the god of fire, in thanks for the acquisition of wealth
「發財」︰壓軸畫面描繪廣州舉行的祭神典禮,充滿節日氣氛

The 'Trading China' exhibition held in Pacific Basin Shipping Gallery, Hong Kong Maritime Museum.
在香港海事博物館太平洋航運展廳舉行的「陶冶之路——清代瓷器製運圖」展覽。

Canton enamelled dish with an English sailing ship, late 18th century
18世紀末廣彩英國帆船紋盤

Gilded porcelain coffee pot in underglaze blue with a view of the Calcutta waterfront, c.1790
青花描金「加爾各答」咖啡壺,約1790年

Covered pear-shaped coffee pot decorated in iron-red and oxidized silver with the arms of the Royal Prussian Bengal Company of Emden, 1750s
廣彩描金普魯士紋章瓷咖啡壺,1750年代

Credits: Story

In memory of Mrs Susan Chen Hardy.
感謝陳淑貞女士捐贈。

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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