2016

Masterpieces of Chinese Jewelry: from the Qing to Republican Eras

Museum of Ethnic Costumes, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology

晚晴民国金银器

Many ethnic groups of China have the habit of wearing jewelry. However, the accessories worn by people show distinctively different features in terms of shaping between ethnic groups in the north and those in the south, and even among the sub-divisions of the same ethnic group, due to their varied geological environments, cultural backgrounds as well as habits and customs. In addition to the artistic, decorative and practical values in daily life, these pieces of jewelry sometimes convey auspicious meanings or show the wearers’ religious beliefs, counting as carriers of rich cultural elements.

该银角主要采用錾花和花丝工艺进行制作。银角主纹为二龙戏珠,龙、珠皆单独造型制作,再用银丝同主体焊连。两角顶端为日月纹,四根银片高过两角,顶端饰有蝴蝶,蝶口衔有垂穗;银片间饰有凤鸟和蜈蚣,栩栩如生;银角上辅饰有鱼、蝎子、牛、花卉、云纹等纹饰。贵州黔东南苗族妇女的银角以地域分为三种类型,即西江型、施洞型、排调型。在黔东南苗族的各型银角中,施洞型银角造型最繁丽奢华,制作亦最为精细。

Miao-style Oxhorn-shaped Hair Ornament

On the two horn tips there are motifs signifying the sun and the moon. Four silver strips stand in parallel between the two horns but higher than the latter, with fringe-biting butterflies attached to each of their tips. Vivid motifs - phoenix and centipedes - can also be found on these silver plates.

The main pattern on this item is two dragons playing with a ball, set off by the subordinate patterns of fish, scorpions, oxen, flowers clouds, etc. Both the dragons and the ball in the main pattern were welded onto the main body after being finished separately.

苗族蛇形银耳饰 民国

使用扁平纯银丝盘在一起,组成花朵形图案。盘起的丝要焊在一起,做花丝的金属丝直径为0.25mm,较粗的丝通常用作图案的边框。

湘西苗錾花银项圈 清代

此项圈为银质,实心拧花制成,样式古朴简练,艺术风格简洁,两端到中间拧花直径逐渐增大,项圈顶端为卷曲造型。侗族自古便有以银为饰的习俗,妇女平时以少量银饰装扮,遇有喜庆节日,遍身银饰,可以多达十几公斤。

此背扣为银质,一对共两件,总重量为571克。整体造型夸张,底座呈卷曲的“s”形,象征着龙蛇,整体风格简约。其造型受当地苗族人的影响,造型简洁,风格强烈。底座和尖锥为一体,其中一个背扣的底座是圆滑的银面,没有装饰,另一个背扣的底座有凸起的棱面,刻有卷曲的植物图案。

此耳饰整体精巧细致,材料为银质,主体为一形似蝶又似花朵的银质底托,底托中心镶嵌有红色的料珠,底托下方垂挂有银叶片。叶片分上下两层,均为五片,形状为水滴形,上有圆点装饰,每片图案都有细密的绞丝做衬。耳挂为简约弧形,末端卷曲形似龙尾,又有固定作用,防止脱落。侗族的银饰工艺在唐宋时代就已经很有名气,现在妇女仍热爱银饰,“以多为美、以多为富”。

壮族银龙背牌 清代

This piece of silverware features the traditional Chinese pattern of “Two Dragons Playing with One Pearl” on its fan-shaped ornament. The motifs of plum blossoms along the outline of the fan, as well as the chased patterns of birds and fish recurring in the blanks around the dragons, are a testimony to the dragons’ role as a guardian deity to provide security and care for all creatures on earth.

壮族银龙背牌 清代

这件藏品运用了錾花的工艺。具体方法是先用錾子将金属表面凿成线形的图案,确定大致造型,然后用錾子从金属板的表面进行加工,通过敲陷和顶起的方法做成造型,使我们从金属板的正面看有起伏的浮雕效果。在整个錾花过程中,凸起和凹陷是交替进行的,凹陷必须配合凸起。通用工具称为錾子,錾花时金属板置于錾花胶、沥青或铅块上。

The highlight of this flower hairpin lies in its body that has gone through the procedure of bluing. Thanks to this procedure, this pin gained an opaque but glassy, smooth and lustrous texture taking on an elegant palette with turquoise as the dominant color. There are 22 decorative chains altogether hanging from the pin, with an average length of 4.5cm.

Based on the auspicious meaning conveyed by oxen in the Chinese zodiac animals, this ox-shaped pendant is also endowed with wishes to ward off all evil beings and bring good luck.

馆藏的这件花梳运用了錾花、镶嵌、锻造的工艺。梳子上的花纹细节运用了錾花的工艺。錾花是使用一整套具有基本图形的錾子,通过锤击錾子,使金属表面呈现凹凸花纹图案的一项工艺。镶嵌是将一个物体嵌入另一个物体中。手工锻造是一种原始、古老的锻造加工方法。整件饰品在制作成型上都依靠于锻造工艺。

錾花是使用一整套具有各种基本图形的錾子,通过锤击錾子,使金属表面呈现凹凸花纹图案的一项古老的工艺。具体做法:首先,用银片剪裁出包藤所需尺寸,上膠,刻线,錾地纹,退膠;其次,将錾刻好纹样的银片围焊成筒,并打出弧线形;接着,用微火烘烤藤条,慢慢烤弯,圈成圆形;最后,将藤圈套入银筒内,固定成镯。

这是一件古时男子梳理胡须的小梳子,这把胡梳可以关合和展开。关上的时候全长为7.5厘米,展开的时候全长为11.4厘米,梳子最宽处为1.4厘米,重16克。这件胡梳设计合理,做工也十分精妙。梳柄上有蝴蝶的图案,小巧而生动,整个梳子的形状也显得略微俏皮。银质的梳子梳理发须,能够去垢而不沾,解痒而不痛,还可以避免静电。

这件胡梳运用了錾花、锻造的工艺。錾花是我国古代金工传统工艺之一。用小锤敲击各种大小不同的金属錾子,在金属表面留下錾痕,形成各种不同的纹理,使单一的金属表面产生多层次的立体装饰效果。这件胡梳上的蝴蝶纹样就是通过錾花工艺实现的。手工锻造是一种原始、古老的锻造加工方法。整件饰品在制作成型上都依靠于锻造工艺。

錾花是使用一整套具有各种基本图形的錾子,通过锤击錾子,使金属表面呈现凹凸花纹图案的一项古老的工艺。具体做法:首先,用银料锻打出龙头手镯的基本型;其次,錾刻龙头纹、连珠纹;最后,将錾刻了龙头纹的银条围合成镯。

这是一件麒麟形状的帽花,是装饰于帽上的饰物。此帽花长5.3厘米,宽3.7厘米,重4克。麒麟是中国古代神话中的神兽,据说能活两千年,性情温和,不伤人畜,不践踏花草,故称为仁兽。古代用麒麟象征祥瑞,传说中能为人带来子嗣。帽花,是帽饰的一种,明清之际于民间广泛流行,多用于庆贺婴孩满月、周年,妇女也多有佩戴。从这样精美的帽花中,可以反映出当时普通百姓的真实生活和审美情趣。

这件梳子材质由银和玳瑁组成,小巧修长。梳子长8厘米,最宽处为4.2厘米,重14克。梳子是女性生活必备物件,同时也具有观赏、装饰价值。梳子从材料质地到装饰造型都因地域的不同而差异较大。梳子不但具有梳发的功能,而且还是我国古代妇女的发饰之一。民间百姓对梳子还有另外的理解,认为由上往下梳理通顺,寓意凡事有疏通顺利之意。

这件发钗全长18.3厘米,坠有银链子,链子长6.2厘米,发钗最宽处为10.2厘米,总重为18克。玉做蝶身,银丝盘别,发钗三股制式。蝴蝶触须用红色料器点缀,构思巧妙,工艺精湛。这样的银镶玉蝴蝶发钗雍容华贵,富丽精致。发钗是妇女的一种头饰,用来绾住头发。发钗与发簪同是汉族女性挽发必用的饰物,发钗是双叉柄,两股或多股。

帽花是帽饰的一种,明清之际于民间广泛流行,多用于庆贺婴孩满月、周年,妇女也多有佩戴。“福禄寿喜”指的是福星、禄星、寿星和喜神,分别代表了老百姓对幸福、升官、长寿、喜庆四个方面的人生希望,寓意也是吉祥如意、平安福寿等内容。从各式老帽花中,可以反映出当时普通百姓的真实生活和审美情趣。帽花缝在帽子上,护佑自己及子孙,驱邪纳祥,以求平安福寿。

馆藏的这套蝴蝶发钗,由两件组成,平均全长10厘米,最宽处是5.1厘米,总重量是4克。这是一对蝴蝶图案的点翠发钗,清代的蝴蝶注重写实,形态自然,造型活泼。作为头饰,就像是蝴蝶休憩在头发上,翅膀一张一翕,美丽动人。“尘萦游子面,蝶弄美人钗。”就很好的表现了这样的意境。发钗是妇女的一种首饰,由两股簪子交叉组合而成,用来绾住头发。

With a weight of 4g, this hairpin is made of silver and kingfisher feathers inlaying, and tian-tsui, literally meaning “dotting with kingfishers”, a centuries-old intricate Chinese technique of inlaying tiny pieces of iridescent kingfisher feathers within a sliver gilt frame and base to give an overall effect not visually dissimilar from cloisonné work. But unlike enamels, the glorious, lustrous kingfisher jewelry will never fade. The wings of the butterfly on this pin was illustrated by tian-tsui, while its eyes were inlaid.

这件发钗精致亮丽,运用了镶嵌和点翠的工艺。镶嵌是将一个物体嵌入另一个物体中,这件发钗中凤凰的眼睛和莲花的花心就是运用了这样的工艺制作而成。点翠是先用银的金属做成有图案的底座,再把翠鸟背部亮丽的蓝色的羽毛仔细地镶嵌在座上,以制成各种首饰器物。用点翠工艺制作出的首饰,光泽感好,色彩艳丽,而且永不褪色。

这件银点翠蝴蝶发簪,全长5厘米,宽5厘米,柄长6.5厘米,重8克。该发簪在簪头部位采用精湛的镀金点翠工艺。点翠工艺是用翠鸟的羽毛粘贴在镀金银托上的一种精湛工艺,羽毛色百年不褪,是过去女性最精致的饰品。翠,即翠羽,翠鸟之羽。翠羽根据部位和工艺的不同,可以呈现出蕉月、湖色、深藏青等不同色彩,加之鸟羽的自然纹理和光泽,使整件作品具有动感。

This gold-plated silver earing was made on the combination of chasing, filigree inlaying and tian-tsui. Kingfisher feathers were painstakingly glued onto the surface of the silver ornament coated with gold powder, making it lustrous and gorgeous.

此佩饰为银质,带型的手镯,后方是一个活扣,使得手镯可以灵活拆卸成条状。采用花丝工艺,三个方形的底托上各镶嵌有一大两小共三颗珊瑚,镶嵌的圆润饱满,工艺精细。蒙古人认为红珊瑚可以带来幸福,白银象征着神圣纯洁。所以白银、珊瑚等常用于首饰装饰上。这件手镯的整体造型简洁独特,显示了蒙古人不同的审美观。

Ethnic Costume Museum, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology
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