The origins of Hagi ware with the official kiln of the Mōri clan
The history of Hagi ware began when an official kiln for the exclusive use of the Chōshū clan (Hagi clan) was established to utilize the techniques brought to Japan by potters such as Yi Chak-kwang (Japanese: Li Shakkō). These potters came from Korea to work in Japan after the Mōri clan relocated to Hagi in 1604. The kiln was made in the Nakanokura section of Matsumoto village, to the east of Hagi Castle (where the Sakakōrai Zaemon workshop is located today in Hagi´s Chintō district). Hagi Ware would later be called Matsumoto ware (or Matsumoto Hagi) after another official Hagi kiln was established at Fukawa.
The Sakakōrai Zaemon Workshop
At the Sakakōrai Zaemon workshop, one can still sense the solemnity of the former official kiln used during Japan's feudal period.
Fukawa ware (Fukawa Hagi): the second official kiln
During the first half of the seventeenth century, Yamamura Sakunojō (the son of Yi Chak-kwang, who was also known as Mitsumasa or Shōan) took over the official kiln with his uncle, Saka Kōraizaemon. In 1657, however, he relocated with his son Yamamura Mitsutoshi and students to Sōnose (today´s city of Nagato) in Fukawa, where he established the second official kiln.
Fusō-an Miwa Kiln
In 1663, two first generation potters, Saeki Hanroku (1630–1682) and Miwa Kyūsetsu (1630–1706), joined the official kiln of Matsumoto run by Saka Sukehachi II (son of Kōraizaemon), which improved the production of the kiln.
Hagi tea ceramics: tanuki (raccoon dog) ornament
Miwa Kyūsetsu I went to Kyoto to study the making of Raku ware Senke tea implements in the early eighteenth century. Following this lead, after the middle of the Edo period, Hagi potters began adapting their pursuit of the plasticity of clay to the trends of tea culture, focusing on the making of tea-related wabi suki wares. This trend continued through the end of the Edo period (1615–1868). Various types of sencha (steeped green tea) implements and other objects were also produced during this period.
Hagi tea ceramics: Musashino-utsushi tea bowl
After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, individual and corporate-run potteries further developed along with Japan's modernization. Although a variety of ceramic wares were made with productivity in mind, wabi suki tea pottery that maintained traditional materials and techniques from the former official kilns would become mainstream Hagi ware again in the Taishō period (1912–1926).
Hagi tea ceramics: Fresh water container (mizusashi) in the form of a sedge hat
In the early and mid-Shōwa period (1926–1989), particularly around the Pacific War period, artists were actively creating pottery works that expressed their individual ideas. Such works have since become representative of traditional ceramics.
Hagi tea ceramics: Tea bowl named Inochi no kaika (Bloom of Life), with a "floral crown" foot
The historical and artistic value of Hagi ware grew, with Miwa Kyūwa (1895-1981) being designated a Living National Treasure (Holder of Intangible Important Cultural Property) for Hagi Ware in 1970. His younger brother Miwa Jusetsu (Kyūsetsu XI) received the same title in 1983, while Yoshika Taibi was selected as a Person of Cultural Merits in 1990.
Clay used for Hagi ware
The traditional clay used for Hagi ware is soft and airy, which is one of the features of Hagi tea ceramics. The clay is a mixture and blend of three main raw clays (Daidō clay, Mitake clay, and Mishima clay) with the synergetic effect between the clay and the glaze. At times, local clay found near the kilns of Matsumoto or Fukawa is also used for the blending to suit production needs. 
Hagi ware glazes (1): Biwa (loquat) glaze
Also called dobai (“earth ash”) or mokubai (“wood ash”) glaze, this glaze allows the beautiful earthy clay color underneath to come through. It is created by turning the ashes of various types of wood (pine, sawtooth oak, oak, Isu wood, etc.) into a solvent. Upon firing with oxidizing flames, the glaze and the clay both become a bright, pale yellow.
Hagi ware glazes (2): white Hagi glaze
This is a semi-opaque, cloudy white glaze made by mixing earth ash glaze with straw ash. It is commonly used not only on Hagi ware, but also by potteries in western Japan. Today, the main shade of this glaze is known as Kyūsetsu White which gives a look of thick, fluffy, and warm cotton.
Hagi ware production (1): Clay filtering
The various ground raw clays are repeatedly mixed inside a basin to make an even base clay.
Hagi ware production (2):  shaping, decorating, biscuit firing
To make Hagi pottery, the kneaded base clay is placed on the potter’s wheel and rotated clockwise. Once shaped, the basic piece is allowed to dry in the shade for two to three days before finishing touches are made, such as cutting out the foot. After this, slip or brush patterns are applied and the vessel is left to dry before being biscuit fired in temperatures between 700 and 800˚C for 15 to 18 hours.
Hagi ware production (3): glazing and stacking the kiln
The biscuit-fired piece is glazed and stacked inside the kiln. Traditional Hagi ware kilns are multi-chambered climbing kilns built onto the slopes of mountains, a method introduced to Japan from Korea. The firing area consists of three to five connected chambers.
Hagi ware production (4): firing and removal from kiln
The amount of time for the primary firing inside the kiln depends on the scale of the kiln  and how many chambers it has. Pieces are first fired inside the firing chamber for at least 15 hours, but may require a further 30 hours of firing if there are five chambers in the kiln. The firing temperature, between 1,260°C and 1,280°C, is maintained by feeding the kiln with pine wood fuel. After firing, the firing chamber is sealed tight. The fired pieces are removed from the kiln after having cooled for between twenty-four hours and five days.
Tea bowl named Inochi no kaika (Bloom of Life), with a "floral crown" foot
The foot of this tea bowl resembles a flower with four heart-shaped petals. It is a unique design developed by Miwa Jusetsu (Kyūsetsu XI, 1910–2012) created by further expanding on the revival Momoyama-style cut base. In this sense, the 400 year Hagi ware tradition has cultivated the boldness to engage in revolutionary creativity.
By: Art Research Center, Ritsumeikan University in collaboration with Kyoto Women's University
Credits: Story

Information provided by Hagi Uragami Museum

Text written by Ishizaki Yasuyuki, Hagi Uragami Museum

Photography by Shimose Nobuo

Supported by Tamamura Shinichi and Morino Akito, Archival Research Center, Kyoto City University of Arts

Exhibition created by Maezaki Shinya, Kyoto Women's University

English translation by Eddy Y. L. Chang

Edited by Melissa M. Rinne, Kyoto National Museum

Directed by Maezaki Shinya, Kyoto Women's University

Credits: All media
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