13th and 14th Century
The White Banner is also called ‘Yisun Kholt Tsagaan Tug’ or Peace Banner. It is mentioned in many historical works on the Mongols. The White Banner was raised during times of peace or in a place away from war. From ancient times until the present day, Mongolians have presented offerings to the White Banner. The main part of the White Banner is made from the tails of white mares. The main white banner is surrounded by eight banners. The offering ceremony to the White Banner was held during a grand ceremony once every three years. Since the 19th century this ceremony is part of the annual Naadam celebration.
The Black Banner was the khan’s battlefield banner, standing for the power of the “Everlasting Blue Heaven,” which can concentrate and mobilise the spirit and power of all Mongols to defeat their enemies at any time in all directions. Folk stories mention that the Black Banner would be raised when the khan was at war.
15th - 16th century
Khangai sum, Arkhangai aimag
In 1953, Samdan a local museum staff member collected these soldier’s plated boots from Dashragcha - an old woman of Khangai sum, Arkhangai aimag. For generations the soldiers in Dashragcha’s family had worn the armored boots - the first man to use them was from seven generations before her. During the people’s government, Dashragcha distributed the plates from the boots to several local men who were conscripted into the military.
The boots are made of calfskin, which was imported from central Asia, and quilted textiles to make the sole. The boots have high sides with ties, which were connected to the trouser belt.
Letter sent from
Guyuk Khan to the Pope
13th - 14th century
In 1920, the scholar Cyrill Karalevskii found the second letter in the Archives of the Vatican, and the French scholar Paul Pelliot published this material in his book “Les Mongols et la Papaute” in 1923.
In 1246, Guyuk, a grandson of Khubilai, was enthroned as Khan of the Great Mongol State. The same year this letter was sent to the Pope Innocent IV as a response to an earlier letter. The Italian Catholic priest Plano Carpini was dispatched to the Mongolian steppe to spy on these nomadic people who were becoming more and more powerful and to see the extent of their country, weapons, and customs. He arrived in Kharkhorum around 1245 -1246. The content of the letter from the
Pope was an attempt to convince the Mongols to follow his religion. Guyuk Khan, in response, threatened the Pope in his letter, delivered by Plano Carpini, expressing the power of his empire.
Khugshin Teel monument
Khugshin Teel. Hairhan dulaan, Uvurhangai aimag
This monument bearing Chinese inscription describes the building of a fortified city by Khubilai Khan’s soldiers during the period when Khubilai and Arigbuh were fighting for kingship. The castle was named ‘Suriig badruulagch tsergiin hot’ but locals call it the Ruins of Khugshin Teel. It was discovered by the Russian explorer P. Kozlov in 1926. It is known that a monument bearing a Chinese inscription was set up in the fifteenth year of Khubilai Khan’s Yuan Dynasty, giving a date for the foundation of the castle of 1275.
Letter of peace sent from IL Khan Ulziit to Louis Phillipe, the King of France
13th - 14th century
This letter of peace was written in 42 lines of ancient Mongolian script, on long, narrow paper. The content of the letter is as follows: “Ulziit Sultan of IL Khanate informed the European kings that he had established peace within his state, quashed the internal conflicts, and resolved to stand against foreign intruders with joint force, but he also expressed his wish to strengthen peace with those countries.” This letter was sent to Louis Philippe, King of France in 1304 -1305.
Bow and arrow set
Birch-bark, wood, iron
11th -12th century
The bow is one of the distinctive items of Mongol culture. The Mongol bow is a typical Asian recurve type: a composite bow made from ibex horn, sinew, birch wood, birch-bark and willow. The battle weapons carried by the Mongols included arrow, arrowheads, knife, sword, battle-axe, bow and quiver. Arrow shafts were made of willow, the arrowheads of iron and the fletching of bird feathers. The featured collections were found in a cave burial in 2004 in Artsat Del, Bayankhongor aimag. Very similar items were also found in Shiluustei, Zavkhan aimag, western Mongolia.