Great world artists that performed in Municipal.

The tenor's voice
São Paulo already had concert halls since 1874, such as Teatro Provisório (at rua Boa Vista), Teatro São José (praça João Mendes), and Teatro Colombo (largo da Concórdia). But it was with the Theatro Municipal de São Paulo's inauguration that the city had a concert hall well equipped for big concerts. This new structure not only put São Paulo in the route of world tours, but it also brought great opera, theater, music, and dance names to perform on its stage. The first two decades of the Theatro were one of the richest periods of lyrical music in the Paulista capital. Beside the presence of Titta Ruffo, the greatest baritone of the time, the Paulistas watched in 1911 the premiere of "Tristan and Isolde," by Wagner. Shortly after, in 1914, came "Tanhäuser" and, years later, "Os Mestres Cantores." Several singers of great magnitude in the international lyrical scene conquered the audience in their premiered recitals, having between them the soprano Amelita Galli-Curci, the tenor Tito Schipa, and the mezzo-soprano Gabriela Besanzoni. But none of them was more famous than Enrico Caruso, considered the King of Tenors.

In the image, the baritone Titta Ruffo, who was responsible for the premiére of the Theatro Municipal with the opera "Hamlet," by Ambroise Thomas. The talent of the baritone was confirmed by his performance as Figaro, in "Il Barbiere di Siviglia," by Rossini, which Ruffo sang closing the first season of the Theatro. Ruffo came back to the Theatro's stage in 1915 as the protagonist of "Rigoletto," by Verdi.

Considered one of the most important tenors of 20th century, the Italian Tito Schipa spoke four languages and sang in twelve -- including the Australian aboriginal language. He performed with the Civic Opera of Chicago (1919) and at the Metropolitan Opera House, in New York (1935).

Enrico Caruso, considered the King of Tenors in his time, was also cheered by Luciano Pavarotti as the best singer in classical music of all times. His work was a milestone in music as being the first recording to reach the mark of 1 million sold copies in the world, with his interpretation of "Vesti la giubba," from the opera "Pagliacci."

Grabriella Besanzoni (mezzo-soprano), although was a contralto, dedicated herself to the studies of mezzo's tessitura. Her debut in this range was in Teatro Costanzi, in Rome. At the beginning of 20th century, she was consecrated the star of the famous Teatro Colón, in Buenos Aires. She was the founder of S.A. Teatro Brasileiro, which although having a short life was fundamental for consolidating opera in Brazil.

Beniamino Gigli (tenor), considered the natural successor of Caruso and Giacomo Lauri-Volpi because of his vocal range, was the main tenor of Metropolitan Opera, in New York, for 12 consecutive years.

Program of "Cavalleria Rusticana" and "Pagliacci," with Beniamino Gigli as Cannio.

The eternal return
In 1936 was celebrated the centenary of the composer Carlos Gomes. In the celebration, the exceptional Italian-French dramatic-soprano Gina Cigna participated in the rerun of "Lo Schiavo." The acclaimed Bidú Sayão performed on the side of one of the greatest French tenors of her time, Georges Thill, in a rerun of "Il Guarany." The Theatro Municipal established itself as a stage for classical repertoires. From 1940, the performances were basically the same of the previous decades, dominated by names such as Verdi, Puccini, Donizetti, Rossini, Bellini, Mascagni, Leoncavallo, Bizet, Massenet and, of course, Carlos Gomes. In 1946, Constantina Araújo, young Paulistana soprano, premiered in the popular season, developing a promising career which would take her, in the next decade, to the best theaters in Europe. In this time, brilliantly performed in the Municipal other Brazilian singers, such as the sopranos Maria Sá Earp, Violeta Coelho Neto de Freitas, Agnes Ayres, and the tenor Assis Pacheco and the baritone Silvio Vieira.

The debut of the Brazilian Bidú Sayão (soprano) was at Teatro Constanzi, in Rome, playing the role of Rosini, in "Il Barbiere di Siviglia," in 1926. Starting from 1937, she became part of Metropolitan Opera House cast, in New York, singing even to the Roosevelt couple in the White House, in 1938. Roosevelt offered her a US citizenship, but Bidú declined: "In Brazil I was born, in Brazil I will die." Unfortunately, she died in the US, in 1999, by complications with pneumonia.

Program of "Manon," with Bidú Sayão (soprano) as Manon Lescaut.

Georges Thill (tenor) performed in the most important concert halls in the world, such as La Scala, in Milan; Teatro Colón, in Buenos Aires; and Royal Opera House, in London. He was also part of the cast of the Metropolitan Opera House between 1931 and 1932, but had adaptation problems with US culture, which degraded his health causing to be less wanted by the house patrons.

The Italian Salvatore Baccaloni (bass) is considered one of the greatest bufons of 20th century. He specialized himself in comedy thanks to the advice of La Scala's conductor, Arturo Toscanini, having done historical performances such as Leporello, in "Don Giovanni;" Dulcamara, in "L'elisir d'amore;" and the main roles in "Falstaff" and "Gianni Schicchi".

Claudia Muzio (soprano) had an ascendant career since young age. She had her debut at La Scala, in Milan, one of the most important concert halls in the world, with only 24 years old, playing Desdemona in "Otello," by Verdi. In the next year, she performed in Paris and London. But it was at Teatro Colón, in Buenos Aires, that Muzio established a special relation with a captive audience.

Gina Cigna (soprano), actually, started her career as a pianist. She decided explore her singing qualities after an advice of her husband, Maurice Sens. She had her debut at La Scala, in Milan, in 1927, using her married name Ginette Sens, without having great reviews. Two years later, already using the name Gina Cigna, at the same La Scala, she performed Donna Elvira in "Don Giovanni," which was her triumph. She performed at La Scala until 1945.

Ebe Stignani (mezzo-soprano) also had an "affair" with La Scala, in Milan. Invited by Artur Toscanini in 1926 for the role of Princesa Eboli in "Don Carlo," by Verdi, her debut in Milan was such success that the city became her main stage. She traveled around the world, performing in long seasons in North America -- especially after the war --, but never got to perform at Metropolitan Opera House, in New York.

The career of the Croatian Zinka Milanov (soprano) is closely connected to the Metropolitan Opera House, in New York. In 1937, she had her debut there playing the role of Leonora in "Il Trovatore," by Verdi. She stayed working there until 1947, when she got married again. Because of her premiére at Met, Zinka had to adopt the last name of her second husband, Milanov, since her real last name, Kunc, wasn't that glamorous for the house and, also, because the patrons were worried of pronouncing mistakes that the public could make -- what could generate some strong words.

Bruna Castagna (mezzo-soprano) mostly performed in two big concert halls in the world: Metropolitan Opera House, in New York (between 1937 and 1945), and Teatro Colón, in Buenos Aires (1925-1942). Although having an iconic career, Catagna had an early retirement, with a little more than 40 years old.

The golden age
The 1951 season closed a golden age in the Paulistana operatic life. For the last time, it reunited a great international cast corresponding the tradition since the inauguration of the theater. The great names of the lyrical scene came to São Paulo: Maria Callas, Renata Tebaldi, Fedora Barbieri, Mario Del Monaco, Giuseppe di Stefano, Titto Gobbi, Nicola Rossi-Lemeni. It was in this time that Beniamino Gigli did his final appearance in Brazil. After this season, the Theatro closed for renovations, restarting its activity in 1955, with an extensive repertoire but with less well known artists.

The North-American Maria Callas (soprano) was considered the biggest soprano of all times. Callas became famous not only by her voice -- which had unique characteristics --, but also by her personal life. By having a strong personality, now and then she got in fights with her colleagues, conductors, and patrons of concert halls around the world. The most iconic conflict may be the one with Rudolf Bing, from Met, who fired her after she refused to sing "La Traviata" and "Macbeth," both by Verdi, in alternate days. "La Traviata" and "Macbeth" have very different vocal demands. Answering to Bing, Callas sentenced that her voice wasn't an elevator.

Fedora Barbieri (mezzo-soprano) may have the longest lyrical career in history. Without officially retiring, Barbieri stopped performing often during the 1990s. Although having a respected career, Fedora was well known for her partnership with Maria Callas in- and outside of the stages during the 1950s.

Ferruccio Tagliavini (tenor) could be considered the heir of Tito Schipa and Beniamino Gigli. He performed in the most traditional concert halls in the world: La Scala, in Milan; Teatro Colón, in Buenos Aires; Metropolitan Opera House, in New York; San Francisco Opera, in São Francisco; Royal Opera House, in London; and Paris Opéra, in Paris.

Renata Tebaldi (soprano) was known as "La voce d'angelo", or "The voice of an angel", because of her beautiful voice. The nickname helped to be considered one of the best sopranos in history and becoming a great diva. In 1963, she suffered minor vocal problems, which made her take a break of her career for a short period of time and re-educate her voice. She was back on the stage in the next year, but her voice gained a little weight.

Program of "La Traviata," with Renata Tebaldi (soprano) and Tito Gobbi (baritone).

The tropical stars
Beside the presence of international artists, the seasons in the 1960s were marked by the massive presence of national artists. Between them, stood out the talents of the sopranos Agnes Ayres, Niza de Castro Tank, Ida Micollis, Ercila Block; the mezzo-sopranos Martha Baschi, Glória Queiroz; the tenors Sergio Albertini, Benito Maresca, Bruno Lazzarini; the baritones Constanzo Mascitti, Andréa Ramus, Paulo Fortes, and many more artists that fought for the opera survival in Brazil. Committed in this struggle, were the conductors Armando Belardi and Edoardo de Guarnieri, both leading the lyrical season of the Theatro since the 1940s.

Mario Del Monaco (tenor) had his debut in the opera "Madama Butterfly," by Verdi, at Teatro Puccini, in Milan, in 1940, one year before having being prevented from the Italian army expedition to Russia by colonel Gino Ninchi. Ninchi explained: "Don't force the destiny. You will belong the infantry if you be called. Moreover, you are an heritage of our country and will serve your nation showing your unique voice to the world." His talent was so pre-eminent that for 28 years La Scala would only present "Andrea Chènier", by Umberto Giordano, if Monaco was in the cast.

Agnes Ayres (soprano) was part of one of the historical recordings made by the Brazilian TV station TV Cultura. Performing in the opera "Fosca," by Carlos Gomes, in the role of Délia, Ayres was part of one of the only fully recordings made by the TV station during the 1970s. The material was found by her nephew, José Eduardo Pereira de Oliveira, just after the Ayres death with 83 years old.

Ida Miccolis (soprano) participated in countless operas, recitations, and concerts at Theatro Municipal. For her roles, she dressed costumes tailored by famous stylists, such as Denner Pamplona de Abreu, for the opera "Tosca;" and Clodovil Hernandez, for "Aida."

Niza de Castro Tank (soprano) started her artistic career at Radio Gazeta, where she stayed for five years. She was part of the cast which made the world first full recording of "Il Guarany," by Carlos Gomes.

Sergio Albertini (tenor) also was part of the first recording of "Il Guarany," by Carlos Gomes. Made in 1986, the recording had the Coral Lírico and the Orquestra Sinfônica of Theatro Municipal as part of the cast, and with solos by Niza de Castro Tank, Andrea Ramos, and Benedito Silva. The concert was conducted by Armando Belardi and Roberto Tibiriçá.

There is an anecdote in Theatro Municipal saying that during the 1950s, when the tenor Beniamino Gigli was performing in Rio de Janeiro, it was heard a beautiful voice coming out from one of the dressing-rooms. The employees of the Theatro and part of the choir stopped in front of its door as a way to not loose the opportunity of hearing the great tenor rehearsing. But when the door opened, the great Assis Pacheco (tenor) leaves the room! He was one of the few Brazilian singers who made his living only by his art.

Paulo Fortes (baritone), the artist who performed the most at Theatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro, and Glória Queiroz (soprano), who sang around 60 opera roles in her carreer, in the opera "O Chalaça," de Francisco Mignone.

The representation
Although it doesn't offer a good acoustic for prose theater, through the Municipal's stage passed international theater companies, being the majority of Italian ones, but it also had French, German, Czech, Spanish, Russian, and Israeli, beside the most congratulated Brazilian theater groups. The international companies did their tours in South America having as a reference place the Teatro Colón, in Buenos Aires. From there, the companies visited some Brazilian capitals bringing their full cast. The costumes and scenery, in majority of times, were the same for all staged plays, changing only the position of the furniture on the stage.

Marcel Marceau (mimic), considered the French Chaplin, left traces around the world with his pantomime and his alter-ego Bip, character who wore threadbare coat, striped shirt, and an opera silk hat with a flower at the top.

Madeleine Renaud (actress) and her husband Jean-Louis Barrault (actor), with whom she was married for 50 years. They founded together their own theater company, Renaud-Barrault.

Vivien Leigh, actress of "Gone With the Wind," performed on the stage of Theatro Municipal following the English theater company Old Vic Company in the play "Camille."

The Brazilian theater
The Brazilian theater was always on the stage at Municipal, showing the traditional popular dramas and comedies. In 1921, Itália Fausta was the biggest expression of Companhia Dramática Nacional. Your interpretation of the play "Mãe," by Russinol, is your best moment. In 1927, Leopoldo Fróes joined Dulcina de Moraes for the play "Flores do Mundo," by Fleur and Croisset. He returned in the same year with the Companhia de Comédias, on the side of Chaby Pinheiro and Manoel Durães, in the play "A Rosa de Outono," de Jacques Deval. On the side of Carmen de Azevedo, he played in "Gigolô," by Renato Viana. In July 1937, Décio de Almeida Prado staged "A Luva," by Julio Dantas, with the newly created Teatro Universitário do Grêmio da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras of USP. In 1938, a new text by Alfredo Mesquita, "Casa Assombrada," with Irene Bojano. In the year of 1943, it is the premiere of Cacilda Becker in "Auto da Barca do Inferno," by Gil Vicente. A group from Rio, "Os Comediantes," directed by Ziembinski, pushed the Brazilian theater to the vanguard with the play "Vestido de Noiva," by Nelson Rodrigues, causing perplexity in the audience and critics.

Cacilda Becker (actress), one of the greatest myths of Brazilian stages, in the presentation of "Camille," by Alexandre Dumas. Sister of the also actress Cleyde Yáconis, Cacilda performed in 68 plays, three movies, and one soup-opera in 30 years of career. She was a member of the legendary theatrical company Teatro Brasileiro de Comédia (TBC) and died on stage during the presentation of "Waiting for Godot" because of a cerebral aneurysm.

The legendary Procópio Ferreira (actor, playwright, and director) was the person who most performed the biggest number of national plays and launched the biggest number of authors. In 68 years of career, he performed more than 500 roles in 427 plays. When he died, with 86 years old, his body was veiled at Theatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro.

Italia Fausta (actress), in the play "O Anjo Negro," by Nelson Rodrigues. Connected to the traditional theater colonized by Portugal, Fausta was part of one of the most important modern changes in Brazilian theater during 1940s and 1950s. She was part of the great Teatro da Natureza and directed the premiére of Teatro do Estudante do Brasil (TEB). When she performed for "O Anjo Negro," Fausta was part of Teatro Popular de Arte (TPA) in a memorable season at Teatro Fênix, in Rio de Janeiro.

Maria Della Costa (actress), playing "The Respectful Prostitute," by Jean Paul Sartre. Della Costa was one of the founders of Teatro Popular de Arte (TPA) together with her husband Sandro Pollini (Italia Fausta's nephew). In 1954, she founded her own theater which carries her name in Bela Vista, São Paulo, and where she created the best repertoires of Brazilian theater.

The actress Dulcina de Moraes was the founder of Fundação Teatro Brasileiro, later transformed into Faculdade de Artes Dulcina de Moraes, in Brasília. She is also founder, now with her husband Odilon Azevedo, of the Dulcina-Odilon company, responsible by the first presentations of Garcia Lorca, D'Anuzzio, Bernard Shaw, and Jean Giraudoux in the country.

Jumping borders
Mikhail Baryshnikov, one of the Russian dissidents, came in 1980 already associated with the American Ballet Theatre to dance "The Corsair." In 1983, Rudolf Nureyev, the dancer who recovered the importance of male performer, arrive in Brazil with the Ballet Français to dance the "Songs of a Wayfarer," a music by Mahler. Both were well known as the two of the biggest dancers in history. Although dissidents, both showed how the Russian school impacted ballet's history and dance techniques.

Rudolf Nureyev was the first male superstar in dance since Vaslav Nijinsky. Nureyev decided to leave Russia in June 17th, 1961, just after his performance in Paris, when he broke the Soviet security barrier at the airport Le Bourget and asked for political asylum.

Mikhail Baryshnikov in "Le Spectre de la Rose." Considered by the critic Clive Barnes as the "most perfect ballet dancer that [he] saw," Baryshnikov asked political asylum during his tour with Ballet Kirov in Toronto, in Canada, in 1974. Since then and until 1979, he was the main ballet dancer of the American Ballet Theatre (ABT).

Golden fingers
The Brazilian soloists had more chances than our lyrical singers inside the music industry. They got more attention both in the national as the international market. Pianists conquered demanding audiences and the admiration of a select public. The first successful piano world starts were Guiomar Novaes and Magdalena Tagliaferro, also called the "sparkling pianist." Both Magdalena and Guiomar dominated the music scene for decades until the appearance of a new generation. Between the Brazilians, we cite Jacques Klein, Yara Bernette, Nelson Freire, Caio Pagano, Roberto Szidon, Arnaldo Estrela, Arnaldo Cohen, Cristina Ortiz.

During her studies in Paris, Guiomar Novaes (pianist) was invited to play to a compatriot: Princess Isabel, who was in exile in Versalles. It was the Princess who stimulated Guiomar to include in her repertoire "Grande Fantasia Triunfal sobre o Hino Nacional Brasileiro," by Louis Moreau Gottschalk. In this way, since the beginning of her presentation, her audience could know her nationality and mostly she would contribute for the recognition of Brazil in the world.

With only 13 years old, Magdalena Tagliaferro (pianist) won the First Award of Paris National Conservatoire. In constant presentations in America and Europe, Tagliaferro was the creator what we call Public Class, as a way to educate people about the classical repertoire.

Jacques Klein (pianist) studied at Conservatório de Música Alberto Nepomuceno founded by his father, Alberto Klein, in Fortaleza. Already living abroad to improve his technique, when he was 25 years old he was considered the pianist of the year in London, receiving the Harriet Cohen award. Klein was very important in Música Popular Brasileira too, having inclusive composed together with Dorival Caymmi.

Anna Stella Schic (pianist), besides dedicating herself to the piano, was responsible for Heitor Villa-Lobos' biography. The book "Villa-Lobos: Souvenirs de l'Indien blanc" was published in 1987, in France, where she lived since 1971.

The debut of Yara Bernette (pianist) on the stage of Theatro Municipal happened when she was only 11 years old in a children's concert. The professional debut, however, only would come when she had reached majority, when she plays together with Orquestra Sinfônica Municipal de São Paulo and under the conduction of Souza Lima. Four years later, she performed at Town Hall, in New York.

Nelson Freire (pianist) showed to his family his abilities when he was only three years old, when he played by heart a composition that his sister had just played. Freire had an exemplar international career, winning several contests and awards. He participated as a guest in major orchestras around the world, such as Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Orchestre de Paris e Berliner Philharmoniker.

The notable batons
Several conductors performed on the stage of Theatro. Not only conductors connected to the profession's tradition, but also with experimentations that questioned the its role in an orchestra. In 1940, Leopoldo Stokovski, known by his experimentations, led in the Municipal. Three years later was the premiere of Eleazar de Carvalho and, in 1952, it was time for the pianist Gyorgy Sandor. In 1958, São Paulo was included in the first New York Philharmonic tour, which had Dimitri Mitropoulos and Leonard Bernstein conducting. In 1961, the Theatro had the first perform of Isaac Karabtchevsky. The London Philharmonic Orchestra performed in August 1963. In May 1966, it was Philadelphia Orchestra turn, under the baton of Eugene Ormandy. It was the first orchestra to be nationally televised by CDS and to transmit concerts through a radio network, with commercial sponsorship.

The importance of Heitor Villa-Lobos (conductor) to Brazilian music is so notorious that his birthday was chosen to celebrate the Classical Music National Day in Brazil. Villa-Lobos was the music's main exponent during Modernism in the country, thanks to his explorations with popular and indigenous sounds and the classical repertoire. On the day of his death, even the New York Times published an Op-Ed article honoring his career.

Born in Italy, Edoardo de Guarnieri (conductor) naturalized Brazilian in 1941, four years after having escaped from the fascist dictatorship of his country. He had a death that marked the Theatro Municipal's history. While climbing the stairs of the Theatro, he suffered an aneurysm which culminated with his death.

Souza Lima (conductor), just after finishing his studies in Paris, came back to São Paulo and is invited by Mario de Andrade to be part of the City's Culture Department -- which, later, would become the Secretary of Culture. Holding the new position, he was the Orchestra's conductor of the Theatro, besides having being part of Trio São Paulo.

The Italian Tulio Serafin (conductor) replaced the famous La Scala's music director Toscanini, in Milan, when the latter decided to go to New York for a season. Well known by his reputation of training classical singers, Serafin had as one of his pupils Maria Callas. He was also part of Metropolitan Opera House, in New York, for 10 years.

Camargo Guarnieri (conductor) had an important intelectual mentor: Mario de Andrade. In 1928, just after presenting two of his works ("Canção Sertaneja" and "Dança Brasileira"), Andrade invited him to be an often visitor of his house, where they discussed aesthetics, listened musical pieces, and exchanged books. Andrade not only became a very good friend of Guarnieri, as he also was responsible by promoting and explaining the composer's work for a broad audience through his articles in newspapers.

Isaac Karabtchevsky (conductor) is the few professionals in Brazilian classical music that was honoured in a "samba enredo." The samba school Unidos de Vila Isabel, in 2015, did a reference to the conductor with the following verses: "The Brazilian conductor is in Noel's land. The Blue and White score of our Vila Isabel." The school got the second from bottom position.

Eleazar de Carvalho (conductor) was the artistic director of Festival de Inverno de Campos de Jordão since 1973 and implemented several pedagogical programs and scholarships for promising students. Your name is inseparable of the Festival, as he did the musical coordination until his death.

The conductor Lorin Maazel was considered a prodigy in his career. Since he was 12 years old, he already was in tour conducting orchestras in the US. Just to give another example, when he was 11 he conducted the NBC Symphonic Orchestra in a live radio transmission.

Pietro Mascagni (conductor) was the author of the famous "Cavalleria Rusticana," an opera performed many times at Theatro Municipal. The play was written in only two months and it was based on the text of the Italian Giovanni Verga. "Cavalleria Rusticana" is one of the only 17 of the author's plays still played nowadays.

Known by his "grand style," Gino Marinuzzi (conductor) led the premiére of "Tristan and Isolde" and "Parsifal" in Palermo. He performed as a special guest at Paris Opéra e Royal Opera House.

Fidelio Finzi (conductor) was also part of Theatro Municipal's history. Finzi was the first director of Coral Lírico, in 1939. The Lírico had its premiére with the play "Turandot," in June 13th of that year. Finzi led the Lírico until 1947, when he was replaced by Sisto Mechetti.

En garde!
In September 1962 it happened a change of scene in the programming of the Theatro Municipal with the visit of the Modern Jazz Quartet. The biggest impact was still to come around 1965, with the Festival de Música de Vanguarda. Two violinists wielded using their bows as swords. Other musicians played pool, using the piano as the game table. Pedrinho Matta slept under the sound of a metronome. He woke up with an alarm clock and exit the scene. Another pianist played weird sounds caused by objects put between the strings. It was a composition by Maiasumi. In the conductor's score, the compasses were replaced by traffic signs, instructions for whistling, and comic book draws. Between the unrestricted outrage, screams of "bravo, troglodytes, genius...." It were heard musics by Webern, John Cage, Maiasumi, Willy Correa de Oliveira, Henry Poesseur, with the conduction of Diogo Pacheco and the Orquestra de Câmara de São Paulo. In December 1964, Diogo Pacheco urged the tempers again promoting the show "Vinícius, Poesia e Canção," with the participation of Pixinguinha, Ciro Monteiro, Baden Powell, Edu Lobo, Francis Hime, Paulo Autran, and Vinicius himself. The coming of Duke Ellington, in 1968, triggered a series of recitals with North-American popular singers and jazz musicians: Ray Charles (1970), Ella Fitzgerald (1971), Dizzie Gillespie (1971), Sara Vaughan (1972), James Brown (1973), Charles Mingus and Quarteto de Jazz (1974) and Miles Davis (1974).

The "First Lady of Song," Ella Fitzgerald (singer) had three-octave vocal range and won 14 Grammy prizes. She is considered the biggest singer of 20th century by several music critics.

Miles Davis (trompetist) was considered the "musician who could produce a sound that no other musician was capable of," although he wasn't considered having a great technical ability.

Ravi Shankar's (sitarist) music had big influences in Beatles' works. He was considered the "godfather of world music." Although his music was extremely influential, in 1986 Shankar was nominated Prime-Minister Rajiv Gandhi for the upper chamber of the Parliament of India, where he stayed until 1992.

In the 20th anniversary of Bossa Nova, João Gilberto played at Theatro Municipal seated on a stool and sang successes of the music that influenced national and international composers. Gilberto got well known in national music scene when he made a popular music revolution with "Chega de Saudade" recording.

Duke Ellington (composer, conductor, and pianist), known as "The Duke," was the first jazz musician to gain membership into the Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm. Although a great musician, Duke's first passion was baseball. He even got a job as a peanuts seller in the stadiums to see his idols closely.

Charles Mingus (bassist) had a such strong temperament that he became known as "The Angry Man of Jazz." In several concerts he had authentic eruptions of rage during his performance on stage.

Credits: Story

PREFEITURA DO MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO PAULO

Mayor
Fernando Haddad

City's Secretary of Culture
Nabil Bonduki

FUNDAÇÃO THEATRO MUNICIPAL DE SÃO PAULO

Deliberative Council
Nabil Bonduki - President
Leonardo Martinelli
Pablo Zappelini de Leon

Head Office
Jose Luiz Herencia

Management Director
Carolina Paes Simão

Educational Director
Leonardo Martinelli

INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GESTÃO CULTURAL

Council President
Claudio Jorge Willer

Executive Director
William Nacked

Financial Director
Neil Amereno

Artistic Director
John Neschling

PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

Cristiane Santos
Bernardo Guerra

Copyright
Olivieri Advogados Associados

General board

Advisor
Maria Carolina G. de Freitas

Ceremonial
Egberto Cunha

Ticket Office
Nelson F. de Oliveira

Artistic Department

Advisory of Artistic Department
Eduardo Strausser
Thomas Yaksic
Clarisse De Conti

Secretary
Eni Tenorio dos Santos

Artistic Programming Coordination
João Malatian

Technical Director
Juan Guillermo Nova

Assistant of Technical Department
Daniela Gogoni

Stage Director
Ronaldo Zero

Assistant of Stage Director
Caroline Vieira

Resident Assistant of Scenic Department
Julianna Santos

Second Assistant of Scenic Department
Ana Vanessa

Costumes Coordination
Edison Vigil

Resident Costume Designer
Imme Moller

Costume Producer
Fernanda Camara

MUNICIPAL DIGITAL

Director
Rodrigo Savazoni

Executive Coordinator
Thiago Carrapatoso

Artistic Archive

Coordinator
Maria Elisa P. Pasqualini

Coordinator Assistant
Milton Tadashi Nakamoto

Copyists and Archivists
Ariel Oliveira
Cassio Mendes
Guilherme Prioli
Jonatas Ribeiro
Karen Feldman
Leandro Jose Silva
Paulo Cezar Codato
Raissa Encinas
Roberto Dorigatti

Educational Department
Alana dos Santos Schambacler

Production Management

Executive Production
Anna Patricia
Nathalia Costa
Rosa Casalli

Producers
Aelson Lima
Pedro Guida
Nivaldo Silvino

Producers Assistant
Arthur Costa

Fellow
Laysa Padilha de Souza Oliveira

Stage

Head of Stagecraft Technician
Anibal Marques (Pelé)

Head of Machinery
Thiago dos S. Panfieti

Deputy Head of Machinery
Paulo M. de S. Filho

Tools Acquis
Marcelo Luiz Frozino

Head of Stagehand Department
João Paulo Gonçalves

Stage Technicians

Machinists
Alberto dos Santos
Aristides da Costa neto
Carlos Roberto チvila
Ivaildo Bezerra Lopes
Peter Silva M. de Oliveira
Uiler Ulisses Silva
Wilian Danieli Peroso

Scenic Machinery
Alex Sandro N. Pinheiro
Anderson S. de Assis

Stagehands
Eneas R. Leite Neto
Paloma Neves da Costa
Sandra S. Yamamoto

Head of Audio
Segio Luis Ferreira

Audio Operators
Daniel Botelho
Kelly Cristina da Silva
Sergio Nogueira

Head of Lightining
Valeria Lovato

Illuminators
Fernando Azambuja
Igor Augusto F. Oliveira
Lelo Cardoso
Olavo Cadorini
Ubiratan Nunes

Chambermaids
Alzira Campiolo
Isabel Rodrigues Martins
Katia Souza
Lindinalva M. Celestino
Maria Auxiliadora
Maria Gabriel Martins
Marlene Collé
Nina de Mello
Regiane Bierrenbach
Tonia Grecco

CENTRAL DE PRODUÇÃO “CHICO GIACCHIERI”

Sewing Coordination
Emilia Reily

Assistant of Costumes Archive
Ivani Rodrigues Umberto

Scenery Archive
Ermelindo Terribele

Loaders
Carlos da S. Ribeiro
Marcos C. Rocha
Rui da Silva Costa

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT

Luiz Carlos Lemes
Maria Aparecida
Gonçalo da Silva

COMMUNICATION MANAGER
Marcos Fecchio

COMMUNICATION ANALYST
Gisele Pennella

EDITOR
Gabriel Navarro Colasso

WEB EDITOR
Desirée Furoni

PRESS COORDINATION
Amanda Sena

PUBLIC RELATIONS
Caroline Zeferino
Vanessa Beltrão

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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