The advancement of astronomical observation technique, science, and more accurate nautical charts and navigation tools, people could make successful voyages.
On the Mystery of the Sea by Dudley
Robert Dudley | Italy, 1646~67
The first sea atlas to use the Mercator projection was entitled Dell'arcano del Mare, produced in Italy by English explorer and cartographer Robert Dudley (1574–1649). Organized into three volumes comprising 146 nautical charts of the entire known world, this six-part work is a compendium of knowledge for maritime voyages on such topics as navigation, shipbuilding, astronomy, and the Mercator projection.
New Sea Atlas by Broukner
Issac Broukner | Germany, 1749
The atlas contains 14 maps and its 2nd and 8th maps depict the Korean Peninsula. On the second map with the long title of 「The widely recognized map in 1749, which draws the world based on the most practical and realistic observations」, it draws the Korean Peninsula in the middle of the without its name on it.
Portolan Chart by Bartholomeo
Bartholomeo Olives | Italy, 1550
The parchment map is the work of the most prominent chart maker of the day, Bartholomeo Olives. In Italian “Portulano” means “the description of the ocean” and the chart contains the detailed geographical information that helps sail the ocean, such as coastlines, reef sites and the like. Though the Portolan Chart was basically produced to sail the Mediterranean, it became widely used to cross the Atlantic when the Age of Discovery began.
The chart maker’s name (Monnus) and the date of production (xviiii=1619) are written on the parchment nautical chart, and a middle line being inclined 8 degrees which is the commonly noticed characteristic of nautical charts is drawn. As with the other Portolan charts, it depicts the ports and coastlines in detail to help sail the ocean and different sizes of 14 compasses are placed on the chart helping identify the bearings quickly.
The practical form of nautical charts drawn on sheepskins or calfskins, containing the geography and the points of the compass was the most common type in the early days. However, after the 14th century, splendidly colored symbols related to religion and astronomy were included. The names of the places around the Mediterranean are written on Monnus’s chart and religious illustrations, compasses and others are added and decorated with gold leaf.
Celestial Globe Gores by Coronelli
Marco Vincenzo Coronelli | 1965
The celestial globe gores were reprinted and colored in 1965 from the copperplate containing an engraved celestial map produced by an Italian geographer and monk, Coronelli in the late 1600s. When two set of 12 pieces of upper and lower parts for each, 24 pieces in total, are assembled, a celestial globe which is 110cm in diameter is made. On the Gores constellations are artistically visualized with its name below, such as Gemini, Cancer, Leo and others in different languages like Italian, French, Latin and Greek.
Astrolabe by Goes
Sebastiao De Goes | Portugal, 16th Century
The word “astrolabe” can be traced back to the Greek words for “star” (ἄστρον or astron) and “take” (λαβ- or lambanein), thus meaning “star-taker.” Ancient Greek astrologers used it in locating the positions of the sun and stars, and it was also used for determining local time and latitude and for surveying. When astrolabes were first invented, their primary use was to survey the altitude of the sun, moon, and stars above the horizon, but as astronomy and mathematics evolved, they provided even more information. An astrolabe is a very delicate and sensitive instrument, so when it is used at sea, even the slightest movement of a boat can make a huge impact on observations based on the astrolabe. For that reason, special mariner’s astrolabes were produced from the 15th century for navigational use.
A nocturnal, or night-dial, is an instrument that measures local time based on the relative locations of specific stars, and is used at night primarily for navigation. Knowing the time was important in calculating tides during navigation, and some nocturnals incorporated tide charts for key ports.
Germany, Early 17th Century
The nocturnal produced in the early 17th century in Germany was used to measure the time based on the location of a star at night. As well as the time, the length of the night, the phase and the transit time of the moon, and others can be figured out by using the instrument. It is simplified from the ring structure with three layers to two layers and the size is a bit small. It has Hour ring and Date ring on its front and back.
David Trap | Netherlands, 1750
It is a tool to find the direction of the magnetic line by rotating the magnet around the horizontal axis. it is called Compass in the sense that it divides the circle into azimuth. The ivory case contains a hand-painted azimuth table with a raised needle at the top.
It is the dry compass used by the ships of the Dutch East Indie Company. The East Indie Company from many countries served as the outpost of colonization and tried to dominate the east trade market competing with each other for the monopoly of trade. The metal compass is fastened on the rectangular wooden box and the signature of Captain Joseph Nickerson is marked on it.
Scotland, UK, 20th Century
The three different types of Binnacles are mostly equipped on yachts. All the binnacles are made of brass and welded or bolted. Among the binnacles, the binnacles in the middle and on the right side have the panels added on the outside and the panels have the name of the production company, model, serial number and the like.
Universal Ring Dial
William Watkins | UK, 17~19th Century
Universal equinoctial ring dial is shortened to and commonly called universal ring dial and it has the simplest western structure of Equatorial armillary sphere. Especially since it can function in any given latitude by moving the suspension ring, the word “universal” is given. And since it is small, thin and foldable, it is also classified as a type of portable sundial or pocket sundial. Based on the Astronomer’s ring mentioned by Gemma Frisius, a Dutch mathematician and cartographer in the 1500s, a British mathematician, William Oughred, devised the universal ring dial. The dial was so popular until the 1700s. But after the chronometer was invented in the early 1800s, it became obsolete.
A. Berthélemy, Lorieux, P. Ponthus | Modern
A sextant is a navigational instrument to measure the altitude of the celestial sphere over the horizon in order to determine local longitude and latitude. Holding the sextant with its attached telescope, you take a sight of the horizon and a celestial object (either the sun or a star), and measure the angle between them.
Clocks used in ships in the early days operated by “pendulums”, but because of temperature fluctuations and the ship’s movements, these were very inaccurate. In order to overcome these problems, a navigational clock chronometer was made in the 18th century. A chronometer is mounted on gimbal (a pivoted support system composed of two rings connected by a bearing) that maintains its horizontal position, resulting in almost no error.
Principle of Clock by Harrison
John Harrison | UK, 1767
The book is written by a British clockmaker, John Harrison (1693~1776). He invented a chronometer, a highly accurate maritime clock, and in this book he wrote about the operating principles and scientific techniques of a chronometer using pictures and charts. And the specifications of a series of the chronometers, H1 through H4, are included.