Following the invasion of Poland Jews were required to wear an identifying mark on their clothing - a yellow star or a white armband with the blue star of David. The degrading yellow badge soon became widespread across German occupied territories.
Other petty but sadistic humiliations were commonplace. Segregation in public spaces, being paraded wearing humiliating slogans and scrubbing pavements were all tactics designed to dehumanise and degrade Jews and pave the way for public acceptance of even worse treatment to come.
Jewish shops and offices were targeted by graffiti, pickets and in some cases businesses were confiscated altogether.
Jewish texts and other "non-Aryan" books were destroyed in mass book burnings.
On Kristallnacht itself, over 7,500 Jewish stores and businesses and 300 synagogues across Germany and Austria were damaged or destroyed completely. 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps, but by their release 3 months later over 2,000 had already died.
The Holocaust had begun...
Curator — Sarah McDonald, Getty Images
Photographers — Fox Photos, General Photographic Agency, Henry Guttmann, Hulton Archive, Keystone Press, Three Lions Agency