The Janggyeongsa-sinji Outwork is 159 meters in length, and has forty merlons and a pair of batteries at the end, with the embrasures opened towards the summit of Hanbong and the adjacent peaks. The left wall contains a facility called an Ebang, which is a storage compartment or space for weapons and gunpowder. The facility was built after the occupation of Hanbong Peak by Manchu forces during the Byeongjahoran (Second Manchu Invasion of Korea). The facility was restored after the excavation carried out in 2000 by a tea from the Land and Housing Museum.
The Second South Outwork is regarded as the most strategically important of all three outworks built along the south wall of the fortress, and has more gun platforms than the others, making it an effective defense structure against enemy attacks on both sides of the wall. The outwork is 318 meters in circumference and 134 meters in length, and covers 3,583m².
The Second and Third South Outworks were built with the traditional technique of filling the gap between the inner and outer parts of the wall with rubble, by which the inner part is sloped while the outer part is vertical. While the curtain wall of the main fortress was built by piling up irregular, or partly hewn, stones on the ground, the gun platforms were built by stacking larger stones on the bedrock layer.
Historians have discovered that the parapets built along the wall of the outwork underwent two or more renovations during the second half of the Joseon Period, although the majority of the structures built during this period have been destroyed. The latest excavations resulted in the discovery of roof tiles, square bricks and lime plaster used in the construction of the parapets.
The most recent excavation also revealed traces of ditches in four areas of the Third South Outwork and one in the Second South Outwork, as well as vestiges of stairs leading to the artillery batteries, i.e. two in the Third South Outwork and four in the Second South Outwork, and the base of an arched gate leading to the battery of the Second South Outwork. Other discoveries include lime-covered passages and stairways leading to the artillery batteries.
This inscription on a roughly cut stone contains a text about the renovation of Namhansanseong, for which Hong Jeon (1606-1665), then serving as the Buyun (Magistrate of Administrative Unit) and Sueosa (Commander-in-Chief of Sueocheong), along with various junior officials, mobilized a group of skilled workers, carpenters, stonemasons, blacksmiths and plasterers to renovate the fortress. Considering the magistrate’s year of birth and death, the Muin Year inscribed on the stone must refer to 1638. The stone bearing the inscription was used in the abutment of an arched gate leading to the battery located at the end of the Second South Outwork. The inscription consists of 105 Chinese characters written in regular script and engraved in a space measuring 115 centimeters in length and 60 centimeters in breadth.
This inscription contains a record about the renovation of Namhansanseong, completed in the seventh month of 1638, which reads:
Docheong (Chief Officer): Hong Jeon, Buyun and Sueosa
Byeoljang (Adjunct Commandant): Choe Man-deuk, Jeolchung Janggun (Chief Negotiation Officer) and Cheomji Jungchubusa (Chief Royal Advisor),
Yeongjang (Assistant Officer): Song Hyo-sang, Eomo Janggun (Insult-defense Officer) and Haengyongyangwi Sagwa (Lieutenant Officer in the Dragon Rampant Guards),
Gamyeokgwan (Public Works Supervisors):
Kim Myeong-yul, Jeonbujang (Former Police Officer)
Gyeong I-hyo, Jeonsagwa (Former Lieutenant Officer)
Kim Ui-ryong, Jeonbujang (Former Police Officer)
Carpenters: 74 including Head Carpenter Yang Nam
Stonemasons: 13 including Head Stonemason Gang Bok
Blacksmiths: 2 including Yi Gi-tan
Plasterers: 7 including Kim Dol-si
Hong Jeon (1606-1665): Born a son of Hong U-jik and known by the courtesy names Baegyun and Jugam, Hong Jeon was one of the hardline anti-negotiation officials, together with Kim Sang-heon, O Dal-je and Hong Ik-han, who opposed the peace process during the Byeongjahoran. He served the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) in important administrative, ministerial and secretarial positions in many areas outside the capital, including Gwangju, Ganggye, Uiju, Gyeongsang-do, Hwanghae-do, Cheongju, Jeju, Gilju, and Chungju, as well as in Hanseong (present-day Seoul). In 1638, he was appointed as Buyun of Gwangju for a second time, following the promotion of its administrative division from Mok to Bu, and served as the chief supervisor of the renovation of Namhansanseong.
The defensive work built on Yeonjubong Peak measures 315 meters in circumference and covers an area of 865㎡, and originally had 73 merlons, as well as – according to the Map of Namhansanseong – a battery which no longer exists. The current work was restored after the excavation carried out in 2000 by a team from the Land and Housing Museum.
Souce : Namhansanseong World Heritage Center, Gyeonggi Cultural Foundation
Project Support : PR & Marketing Team, Gyeonggi Cultural Foundation
*The photographs and descriptions of this exhibition can not be modified or replicated without prior consent of Namhansanseong World Heritage Center of Gyeonggi Cultrual Foundation.