SOUTHERN ANDEAN ART: TIWANAKU-INCA-VICEROYALTY

Museo Pedro de Osma

This hall displays archaeological artifacts - among which the quero stands out - which allow us to delve into the Cusco art tradition and reach a better understanding of the historical context of South Andean art, from the Ancient Peru to the Viceroyalty.

It holds an important selection from the Tiwanaku and Inca cultures from a private collection from Cuzco.

This scene represents the ritual led by the Inca king (Incari) and the Colla king (Collari), which portrayed the rivalry between these two characters from the Southern Andes.

It began with a combat between the dignataries, clad in regalia of authority and power. The backdrop is Vilcanota, specifically the place called La Raya, the highest point between the Altiplano (the Andean Higlands) and the valley of Cuzco. It is the birthplace of Vilcanota river and the source of lake Titicaca.

We will also find here paintings belonging to the Pedro de Osma Museum from the apogee of viceroyal Cuzco art (18th century), with pronounced Inca characteristics.

Sayri Tupac (on the left) was recognised as Inca by the Spaniards. He thus acquired economic privileges and property rights in Cuzco. He died by poisoning in 1561. Tupac Amaru (on the middle) was Sayri Tupac’s brother. He led the last bastion of Inca resistance, in Vilcabamba. Martin of Loyola captured him and executed him in Cusco. Cusi Huarcay (on the right) was Sayri Tupac’s wife. She is portrayed holding a little bird called q’ente or causarca.

Martín de Loyola (on the left) was Saint Ignatius of Loyola's nephew. He led the military expedition which quashed the Inca resistance in Vilcabamba. As a reward he was given Ñusta Beatriz’s hand in marriage. They had a daughter called Ana Maria Lorenza of Loyola Coya. Beatriz Ñusta (in the middle) was a daughter of Sayri Tupac and Cusi Huarcay. Viceroy Toledo gives her to Martin of Loyola in marriage. Saint Ignatius of Loyola (on the right) was an uncle of Martin of Loyola and founder of the Society of Jesus.

Francisco de Borja (on the left) was one of the founder saints of the Society of Jesus. Grandfather of Juan Enriquez of Borja (Ana Maria of Loyola’s husband) and of Francis of Borja, also called Prince of Esquilache, viceroy of Peru between 1614 and 1621. Juan E. of Borja (on the middle) was a grandson of Francis of Borja, founder saint of the Society of Jesus. He takes Ana Maria Lorenza of Loyola as his wife. They travelled together to Peru, probably in the retinue of his cousin Francis of Borja (Prince of Esquilache), recently named viceroy of Peru, in order to lay legal claim to the rights of property in Cuzco of Ana Maria Lorenza, heir to Sayri Tupac. Ana Maria Lorenza of Loyola (on the right) was a daughter of Martin of Loyola and Ñusta Beatriz Clara Coya.

The celebration of Corpus Christi in Cuzco is one of the most outstanding events in the region`s religious calendar maintained over the centuries.

In this painting, the principal parishes of Cuzco are represented with their images. The Main Square is the backdrop for the celebration within a clearly baroque style. It is also a popular feast and people of different backgrounds are portrayed participating in it.

The scheme depicting the busts of the Incas in a single canvas, and arranging them in chronological order, like we can see here, comes from an engraving made between 1724 and 1728 by the Oratorian priest Fr. Alonso de la Cueva, who also made portraits of the Spanish kings, as direct successors of the Cuzco kings in the government of these territories.

This composition was reproduced in canvases and inspired themes, such the one shown here, which broke away from the model emphasizing only the Inca over the Spanish representations.

Museo Pedro de Osma
Credits: Story

Museo Pedro de Osma

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